PAN भरने के लिए इसको फॉलो करें
1. रजिस्ट्रेशन कीजिये अपने ईमेल / नाम /मोबाइल नंबर के साथ ( रजिस्ट्रेशन के बाद कूपन नंबर नोट करके रख ले )
2. फिर सही सही फॉर्म भरिये सभी डिटेल सही सही भरे
3. अपने क्षेत्र का AO कोड चयन करके डाले
४. जब पूरी तरह फॉर्म भर ले फिर ऑनलाइन पेमेंट करे
5. पेमेंट करने के बाद अपना कूपन /डेट ऑफ़ बिर्थ / ईमेल डाल के लॉग इन करें और फॉर्म प्रिंट करें
६. फॉर्म में फोटो चिपकाये और सिग्नेचर करे
7. सिग्नेचर और फोटो चिपकाने के बाद उन डॉक्यूमेंट को सलग्न करें जिनको अपने फॉर्म भरने के समय चुना था ( जैसे आधार / एजुकेशन सर्टिफिकेट इत्यादी )
८. फॉर्म एंव डाक्यूमेंट्स को लिफाफा में भर के इस पते पर भेज दे
9. अपना acowledgment नंबर ( कूपन /ईमेल /डेट ऑफ़ बिर्थ ) अपने पास सुरक्षित रखे
INCOME TAX PAN SERVICES UNIT (Managed by NSDL e-Governance Infrastructure Limited) 5th Floor, Mantri Sterling, Plot No. 341, Survey No. 997/8, Model Colony, Near Deep Bungalow Chowk, Pune - 411 016 PAN/TDS Call Centre: 020 - 27218080 | Fax: 020 - 27218081 e-mail: email@example.com
इसको हमेशा स्पीड पोस्ट से ही भेजे
भेजने के 7 दिन बाद इसको अपने ackowledgement नंबर से स्टेटस चेक करे PAN नंबर अलोट होने के बाद आपका पण नंबर आपको दीखता है एवं 20 से 30 दिन में आपका PAN कार्ड आपके घर आ जाता है .
Dijital India के जरिये सरकारी दफ्तरों और हम भारत वासियों को एक जगह जोड़ने की सरकार का पहल है | या इसे यह भी कहा जा सकता है की आने वाली पीढ़ियों के लिए एक अच्छा तौफा है |जिसके माध्यम से वे लोग आसानी से कोई भी कार्य कर सकेंगे |
इस तकनीक के जरिये हमें आसानी से सरकारी और गैर सरकारी की जानकारी घर बैठे बिना किसी परेशानी के मिल सकेगी | रोजाना की जरुरतो को बिना किसी परेशानी internet के माध्यम से जानकारी ली जा सकेगी |
PM MODI JI का लक्ष्य यह है की डिजिटल इंडिया को वर्ष 2019 तक सभी सरकारी/गैर सरकारी कार्य इन्टरनेट के माध्यम से हमलोगों की असुबिधा को शुन्य करते हुए, सभी कार्य को कंप्यूटराइज्ड कर सारी सुबिधावो को एक जगह से प्राप्त किया जा सकेगा |
डिजिटल इंडिया को निम्न प्रकार से इसे समझा जा सकता है |
- ब्रॉडबैंड हाइवे से सड़क हाइवे की मदत से शहरों को इन्टरनेट के जरिये जोड़ा जाएगा।
- सभी नागरिकों को टेलीफ़ोन सेवाओं का लाभ मिलेगा ।
- सार्वजनिक इंटरनेट के तहत इंटरनेट सेवाएं आसानी से हमें मिलेगा |
- ई-गवर्नेंस के माध्यम से तकनीकी शासन-प्रशासन में सुधार लाया जाएगा।
- ई-क्रांति से विभिन्न सेवाओं को इलेक्ट्रॉनिक सुचना तकनिकी के जरिये लोगों को सुबिधा मुहैया कराया जाएगा।
- इंफ़ोर्मेशन फ़ॉर ऑल का मतलब यह है की हम इन्टरनेट के जरिये सभी तरह की जानकारी आसानी से प्राप्त कर सकेंगे |
- सरकार का लक्ष्य भारत में इलेक्ट्रॉनिक उत्पादों को बढ़ावा देना है, तथा बहरी आयातों को रोकना है |
- सूचना प्राद्योगिकी के ज़रिए IT के छेत्र में अधिक नौकरियों का प्रबंध की जाएंगी।
- स्कूल-कॉलेजों में विद्यार्थियों तथा शिक्षकों का हाजरी ऑनलाइन प्राप्ति |
डिजिटल इंडिया’ को तिन क्षेत्रों में विभाज़न किया जा सकता है |
- हर नागरिक के लिए उपयोगिता के तौर पर डिजिटल ढांचा,
- मांग पर संचालन एवं सेवाएं
- नागरिकों का डिजिटल सशक्तिकरण |
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यदि आप नया OMT के लिए aply करना चाहते है तो आपको कुछ दिन प्रतीक्षा करनी होगी | CSC के द्वारा वर्तमान में पुराने csc का रजिस्ट्रेशन किया जा रहा है | इसकी समाप्ति के बाद csc के द्वारा नए OMT के लिए एप्लीकेशन लिया जायेगा | यदि आप पुराने VLE है तो अपने OMT को रि रजिस्ट्रेशन के लिए यहाँ क्लिक करे
Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is National Mission for Financial Inclusion to ensure access to financial services namely, Banking / Savings & Deposit Accounts, Remittance, Credit, Insurance, Pension, etc... in an affordable manner.
Zero balance Account can be opened in any bank branch or Business Correspondent (Bank Mitr) outlet. However, if the account-holder wishes to get cheque book, he/she will have to fulfill minimum balance criteria.
Documents required to open an account under Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana
- If Aadhaar Card/Aadhaar Number is available then no other documents is required. If address has changed, then a self certification of current address is sufficient.
- If Aadhaar Card is not available, then any one of the following Officially Valid Documents (OVD) is required: Voter ID Card, Driving License, PAN Card, Passport & NREGA Card. If these documents also contain your address, it can serve both as Proof of Identity and Address.
- If a person does not have any of the officially valid documents mentioned above, but it is categorized as low risk' by the banks, then he/she can open a bank account by submitting any one of the following documents:
- Identity Card with applicant's photograph issued by Central/State Government Departments, Statutory/Regulatory Authorities, Public Sector Undertakings, Scheduled Commercial Banks and Public Financial Institutions;
- Letter issued by a gazette officer, with a duly attested photograph of the person.
Special Benefits under PMJDY Scheme
- Interest on deposit.
- Accidental insurance cover of Rs. 1 lac
- No minimum balance required.
- The scheme provide life cover of Rs. 30,000/- payable on death of the beneficiary, subject to fulfillment of the eligibility condition.
- Easy Transfer of money across India
- Beneficiaries of Government Schemes will get Direct Benefit Transfer in these accounts.
- After satisfactory operation of the account for 6 months, an overdraft facility will be permitted
- Access to Pension, insurance products.
- The Claim under Personal Accidental Insurance under PMJDY shall be payable if the Rupay Card holder have performed minimum one successful financial or non-financial customer induced transaction at any Bank Branch, Bank Mitra, ATM, POS, E-COM etc. Channel both Intra and Inter-bank i.e. on-us (Bank Customer/rupay card holder transacting at same Bank channels) and off-us (Bank Customer/Rupay card holder transacting at other Bank Channels) within 90 days prior to date of accident including accident date will be included as eligible transactions under the Rupay Insurance Program 2016-2017.
- Overdraft facility upto Rs.5000/- is available in only one account per household, preferably lady of the household.
Bihar's Chief Minister Nitish Kumar launched a high-tech campaign on June 10, 2015 aimed at catalysing development and showcasing his government's achievements though analysts termed it an attempt to woo voters. Called tadh Chala Bihar' (Bihar moves forward), the campaign
was meant to ensure public participation in drafting of policies and producing a Bihar@2025 vision document. While, the State's information and public relations department is piloting the drive, sources say the idea is the brainchild of Prashant Kishor, a key strategist for Narendra Modi during last year's Lok Sabha polls that the BJP won with a thumping majority.
The pension scheme APY focuses on the unorganised sector and provides subscribers a fixed minimum pension of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 or 5000 per month starting at the age of 60 years, depending on the contribution option exercised on entering at an age between 18 and 40 years. Thus, the period of contribution by any subscriber under APY would be 20 years or more. The benefit of fixed minimum pension enjoys the sovereign guarantee. While the scheme is open to bank account holders in the prescribed age group, the central government would also co-contribute 50% of the total contribution or Z 1000 per annum, whichever is lower, for five years.
The government contribution will be for those joining the scheme before December 31, 2015, are not members of any statutory social security scheme and are not income tax payers.
This is a very important step forward in our country's ability to provide adequate and affordable social protection to all citizens and widen the financial security net to the unorganised and underprivileged sector. The schemes are expected to address the issue of very low coverage of life or accident insurance and old age income in the country.
भूमि अधीग्रहण विधेयक ;-
भारत में आधी से ज़्यादा आबादी के लिए आय का प्रमुख साधन भूमि है|जबकि केरल, बिहार, पश्चिम बंगाल, उत्तर प्रदेश और तमिलनाडु जैसे राज्यों में औसत जोत का आकार आधे से दो एकड़ के बीच है|इस संदर्भ में देखें तो फ्रांस में भूमि जोत का आकार औसतन 110 एकड़, अमरीका में 450 एकड़ और ब्राजील और अर्जेंटीना में तो इससे भी अधिक है|भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था में खेती सबसे कम उत्पादक क्षेत्र है| देश के जीडीपी (सकल घरेलू उत्पाद) में कृषि क्षेत्र का योगदान 15 फीसदी है जबकि खेतों में काम करने वालों की संख्या देश के कुल कार्यबल के आधे से अधिक है|इस तरह ज़मीन भारत का दुलर्भतम संसाधन तो है ही, साथ ही, इसकी उत्पादकता भी बेहद कम है| ये एक गंभीर समस्या है और ये भारत की ग़रीबी का मूल कारण भी है|
क्या है भूमि अधिग्रहण विधेयक
भारत सरकार ने भूमि अधिग्रहण और पुनर्वास के लिए विधेयक का जो मसौदा तैयार किया है उसके प्रावधानों के मुताबिक मुआवज़े की राशि शहरी क्षेत्र में निर्धारित बाजार मूल्य के दोगुने से कम नहीं होनी चाहिए जबकि ग्रामीण क्षेत्र में ये राशि बाजार मूल्य के छह गुना से कम नहीं होनी चाहिए|स्पष्ट है कि ज़मीन के अधिग्रहण और पुनर्वास के मामलों को एक ही क़ानून के तहत लाए जाने की योजना है|'भूमि अधिग्रहण तथा पुनर्वास एंव पुनर्स्थापना विधेयक 2011' के मसौदे में इस बात का प्रावधान है कि अगर सरकार निजी कंपनियों के लिए या प्राइवेट पब्लिक भागीदारी के अंतर्गत भूमि का अधिग्रहण करती है तो उसे 80 फ़ीसदी प्रभावित परिवारों की सहमति लेनी होगी|मसौदे में लिखा गया है कि सरकार ऐसे भूमि अधिग्रहण पर विचार नहीं करेगी जो या तो निजी परियोजनाओं के लिए निजी कंपनियाँ करना चाहेंगी या फिर जिनमें सार्वजनिक परियोजनाओं के लिए बहु-फ़सली ज़मीन लेनी पड़े|यानी अगर ये विधेयक क़ानून बन जाता है तो बहु-फ़सली सिंचित भूमि का अधिग्रहण नहीं किया जा सकेगा|
सरल, पारदर्शी, तटस्थ
मसौदे की भूमिका में केंद्रीय ग्रामीण विकास मंत्री जयराम रमेश ने विधेयक के लक्ष्यों के बारे में लिखा है, "प्रत्येक मामले में भूमि का अधिग्रहण इस तरह किया जाए कि इससे भू-स्वामियों के हितों की पूरी तरह से सुरक्षा हो और साथ ही उस ज़मीन से जीविका चलाने वालों के भी हित सुरक्षित रहें."
जयराम रमेश ने अपनी टिप्पणी में लिखा है कि इस विधेयक का उद्देश्य भूमि अधिग्रहण की प्रक्रिया को सरल, पारदर्शी और प्रत्येक मामले में दोनों पक्षों के लिए तटस्थ बनाना है|हाल के वर्षों में हुए भूमि अधिग्रहण में अरजेंसी प्रावधान की काफ़ी आलोचना हुई है. इसके तहत सरकारें ये कहकर किसानों की ज़मीने बिना सुनवाई के तुरत फुरत ले लेती हैं कि परियोजना तत्काल शुरू करना ज़रूरी है|मौजूदा क़ानून के इस प्रावधान में सरकार राष्ट्र हित में किसी भी ज़मीन का आधिग्रहण कर सकती है|
लेकिन नए विधेयक में तात्कालिकता खंड नाम के इस प्रावधान को स्पष्ट किया गया है|मसौदे के अनुसार सरकार राष्ट्रीय रक्षा एंव सुरक्षा के लिए, आपात परिस्थितयों या प्राकृतिक आपदाओं की स्थिति में पुनर्वास के लिए या ‘दुलर्भ से दुलर्भतम मामलों’ के लिए ही तात्कालिकता यानी अरजेंसी के प्रावधानों पर अमल करेगी|
मसौदे में ज़मीन के मालिकों और ज़मीन पर आश्रितों के लिए एक विस्तृत पुनर्वास पैकेज का ज़िक्र है| इसमें उन भूमिहीनों को भी शामिल किया गया है जिनकी रोज़ी-रोटी अधिग्रिहित भूमि से चलती है|
मसौदे में अधिग्रहण के कारण जीविका खोने वालों को 12 महीने के लिए प्रति परिवार तीन हज़ार रुपए प्रति माह जीवन निर्वाह भत्ता दिए जाने का प्रावधान है|इसके अलावा पचास हज़ार का पुनर्स्थापना भत्ता, ग्रामीण क्षेत्र में 150 वर्ग मीटर और शहरी क्षेत्रों में 50 वर्गमीटर ज़मीन पर बना बनाया मकान भी दिया जाने का प्रावधान है|
भारत में भूमि अधिग्रहण की जरूरत क्यों है?
उत्पादकता में तेजी लाने के दो बुनायादी तरीके हैं| पहला, कृषि को अधिक उत्पादक बनाया जाए और दूसरा, ज़मीन को खेती के अलावा किसी अन्य काम के लिए इस्तेमाल किया जाए|आज़ादी के बाद भारत में विकास की प्रक्रिया बिल्कुल इसी नुस्ख़े पर चली|बड़े पैमाने पर सिंचाई और कृषि को आधुनिक बनाने का सरकारी प्रयास किया गया, इसके साथ ही सरकार के नेतृत्व में औद्योगिकीकरण और शहरीकरण का अभियान भी चलाया गया|कृषि को बड़े पैमाने पर आधुनिक बनाने के लिए प्रयास किए गए, जिसमें राज्य की अगुआई में औद्योगिकीकरण और शहरीकरण अभियान भी शामिल है|इन दोनों प्रक्रियाओं के कारण व्यापक स्तर पर भूमि अधिग्रहण हुआ|आज़ाद भारत ने भूमि अधिग्रहण के लिए जिस क़ानून का सहारा लिया वो 1894 में बना था. इसने एक झटके में बड़ी ज़मीदारियों और विवादास्पद मामलों को एक साथ हल कर दिया.कितनी भूमि का अधिग्रहण हुआ?
एक अनुमान के मुताबिक़, 1947 में आजादी मिलने के बाद से अब तक कुल भूमि का 6 फीसदी हिस्सा यानी 5 करोड़ एकड़ भूमि का अधिग्रहण या उसके इस्तेमाल में बदलाव किया जा चुका है.इस अधिग्रहण से 5 करोड़ लोग से ज़्यादा लोग प्रभावित हुए हैं|ज़मीन के सहारे रोज़ी रोटी कमाने वाले भूमिहीन लोगों को तो कोई भुगतान भी नहीं किया गया|ज़मीन अधिग्रहण के बदले किया गया पुनर्वास बहुत कम हुआ या जो हुआ वो बहुत निम्न स्तर का था|इस मामले में सबसे ज़्यादा नुकसान दलितों और आदिवासियों को हुआ|ज़मीन हासिल करने की ये व्यवस्था पूरी तरह अन्यायपूर्ण थी, जिसके कारण लाखों परिवार बर्बाद हुए.,इस प्रक्रिया ने बुनियादी संरचनाएं, सिंचाई और ऊर्जा व्यवस्था, औद्योगिकीकरण और शहरीकरण से लैस आधुनिक भारत को जन्म दिया|
भूमि अधिग्रहण का विरोध क्यों?
1980 के दशक से ही कई नागरिक अधिकारी संगठनों ने भूमि अधिग्रहण के सरकार के तरीक़े पर सवाल खड़े करने शुरू कर दिए|ग़ैर सरकारी संगठन 'नर्मदा बचाओ आंदोलन' विवादास्पद बांध परियोजना के विरोध का अगुआ बना और जबरन भूमि अधिग्रहण के ख़िलाफ़ कुशल प्रबंधकों के लिए प्रशिक्षण का आधार बन गया|इस मामले में निर्णायक मोड़ तब आया जब साल 2006-2007 में विदेशी निवेशकों को आकर्षित करने के लिए टैक्स फ्री विशेष आर्थिक क्षेत्र बनने लगे|नंदीग्राम में किसानों की ओर से कड़ा विरोध हुआ था|इसके फलस्वरूप, पश्चिम बंगाल केनंदीग्राम में सरकार की केमिकल हब बनाने की योजना का हिंसक प्रतिरोध हुआ.इसके अलावा खानों, कारखानों, टाउनशिप और हाईवे के लिए किसानों की ज़मीन लिए जाने के ख़िलाफ़ उग्र प्रदर्शन और आंदोलन किए गए.कई नागरिक अधिकार समूहों का तर्क है कि विशेष आर्थिक क्षेत्र एक सरकारी तरीक़ा था भारत के उद्योगपतियों द्वारा किसानों की ज़मीन पर कब्जा करने का|
नए बिल में सरकार के बदलाव
बीते दिसम्बर में मोदी सरकार ने एक अध्यादेश जारी कर 2013 में यूपीए सरकार द्वारा लाए गए भूमि अधिग्रहण बिल से 'किसानों की सहमति' और 'सामाजिक प्रभाव के आंकलन' की अनिवार्यता को हटा दिया|
यह रक्षा, राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षा, ग्रामीण बुनियादी संरचनाएं, सस्ते घर, औद्योगिक कॉरिडोर और अन्य आधारभूत संरचनाओं के लिए अधिग्रहण पर लागू कर दिया गया|
नए विधेयक में अधिग्रहण के लिए लगने वाले समय में कई साल की कमी कर दी|
इससे प्रॉपर्टी बाज़ार में दाम बहुत गिर जाएंगे, जो संभवतः दुनिया में सबसे क़ीमती है|
Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojna made it to Guinness World Records
Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojna(PMJDY) on 20 January 2015 made it to Guinness Book of World Records.
Indian Banks opened 11.50 crore accounts under the Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana in a short span of five months. The feat was commended by the Guinness Book of World Records.
Out of the total account opened, 5.68 crore accounts belonged to male and 5.82 crore account belonged to females. In percentage terms, 49.37 % accounts belonged to male while 50.63% accounts belonged to females.
6.84 crore accounts were opened in rural areas which is 59.49% of the total accounts opened while in urban area 4.66 crore accounts were opened which is 40.51%.
In August 2014, Indian Government set a target of opening up 10 crore accounts to pass on benefits of various social security schemes to the account holders.
Now, Government will transfer annual subsidy of around 51029 crore rupees directly to bank accounts of 15.45 crore beneficiaries, plugging system leakages.
PMJDY was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in August 2014. The scheme was launched for opening the most bank accounts—about 1.80 crore— in one week as part of the financial inclusion campaign.
Welcome to edugeeks.in. Nowadays computer knowledge is quite essential to everybody. Any educated person without Computer Knowledge will be treated as Computer-illiterate. One must know the basic fundamentals to understand the functioning of a computer. If you are interested to know more about computer basics for attending online aptitude tests for bank exams, then you are right place now. A good stuff is provided here regarding computer basics which are essential for computer knowledge for online aptitude tests. Most of the questions on Computer basics for bank exams are designed from software, hardware, operating system and different parts of computer. All the topics generally covered in competitive exams, particularly in online aptitude tests of Banks, are provided here exclusively for you to enhance your capability and scoring capacity.
Computer is an electronic device or programmable machine that manipulates information or data (input) and produces the result (output). It has the ability of storing, retrieving and processing the data. It is composed of hardware and software in it.
Input Devices – Access the data
Central Processing Unit (CPU) – Process the data
Output Devices- Produces the result
Storage Devices (RAM) – Stores the result
Hope!! You understood this concept how computer access the data (input) and provides the output using some major components. Explanation is given for each and every component at below
Term hardware refers to physical components or elements of the computer like keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, Printer, Disk and Chips
Term Software refers to set of instructions that tell the hardware what to do.
- Software will be loaded from Disk to RAM (Random Access Memory)
- Some of the examples are Games, web browsers and word processors such as Microsoft word
Can a computer run without software???
- Yes, it is possible .But if u wants to create some documents and power points you need some software’s.
- For example if you want to create a document you need word processor
- Software will give some additional capabilities to your computer
To prepare the Food, Vegetables are required and to preserve the Vegetables, a Refrigerator is essential. Similarly to run a program Software is required and to establish the Software, Hardware is essential.
Hope you understood this. Let’s move to hardware components
Internal hardware components
- Mother Board
- Sound Card
- Video Card
- Hard Drive
External Hardware components
Input Devices (accesses the data)
Devices which helps us to interact with computer is nothing but input devices
Ex: Keyboard and Mouse
Output Devices (provides the output)
Devices which sends back the information to you is nothing but Output Devices
Ex: Monitor and Printer
Central Processing Unit (processes the data)
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
- Central Processing Unit is also called as the “Brain of the Computer” or Main Processor which controls all the systems inner functions.
- It is very easy to replace because it is inserted into the socket and is not soldered onto the motherboard
A computer may contain more than one CPU which is nothing but MULTIPROCESSING
Two main parts of CPU are
- Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
- Control Unit (CU).
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): ALU is also called as basic building blocks of Central Processing Unit, which performs all arithmetic and logical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
Control Unit (CU): Control Unit controls the entire processing. It helps in the communication between Memory and ALU
Memory (stores the result)
A place where we can store the data or set of instructions to access them while performing the operations
There are two types of memories (storage devices)
- RAM (Random Access Memory)
- ROM (Read Only Memory)
RAM (Random Access Memory)
RAM (Random Access Memory) is one of the storage devices which performs both read and write operations. But RAM is Volatile in nature it loses the data when there is no power supply. It is fast while programming when compared to ROM
There are two types of RAM
- DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)
- SRAM ( Static Random Access Memory)
ROM (Read Only Memory)
Main advantage of ROM is that we can easily alter the data or reprogrammable. Advantage of ROM is Non –Volatile in nature which does not loses any data when there is no power supply. Motherboard may consist of more than one ROM chips.
Types of ROM
- ROM- Read only Memory
- PROM- Programmable Read only Memory
- EPROM- Erasable Programmable Read only Memory
- EEPROM- Electrically Erasable Programmable Read only Memory
- Flash EEPROM memory
OPERATING SYSTEMS (OS)
Operating System is a type of software that allows computer hardware to communicate with software. A computer without OS is a mere machine
Ex: DOS (Disk Operating System), Linux, Solaris
Types of operating systems
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
GUI is an interface, which allows us to interact with electronic devices like mobiles, gaming devices and Mp3 players using some graphical icons
Ex:Windows 98, Windows CE, System 7.X
Multi-user operating system
Application software which allows multiple users to access the computer with time sharing system
Ex: Linux, UNIX, Windows 2000
Multiprocessor operating system
An operating system which supports the utilization of two or more processors on single computer Ex: Linux, UNIX, Windows 2000
An operating system which supports multiple processes at the time Ex: Unix, Windows 2000
This operating system will allows the software to perform some parts of program to run concurrently
Ex: Linux, UNIX, Windows 2000
Hope!!you like this material for more materials keep visiting our site.Thank you all for your great support friends
The activists of All India Student's Association were detained by Delhi Police on Tuesday, while they were protesting against job cuts at Patel Chowk, a national daily reported.
The protest was against the ministry of finance, that recently announced job cuts in banking sector despite thousands of vacancies available. Several private institutions are also given permissions to charge unreasonable and inflated fee in the form of training fee from selected candidates in PSU banks- as quoted by a daily national.
Delhi Police detained the AISA activists at Jeevandeep building near Patel Chowk metro station and took them in their vehicle. Sucheta De, National President of AISA and activists Vismay Basu, Chetan Tyagi, V Arun Kumar, and S Vikram AK were amongst the people detained by the Delhi Police. The people detained by the police were then forcibly taken to Jantar Mantar.
The Adhikar group, an organisation of qualified IBPS candidates who denied the recruitment at the department of finance and JNUSU also participated in the protest.
Banks and Their Tag Lines
1. SBI - With you all the way, Pure Banking Nothing Else, The Nation’s banks on us
2. State Bank of Hyderabad – You can always bank on us.
3. State Bank of Mysore - Working for a better tomorrow
4. State Bank of Patiala – Blending Modernity with Tradition
5. State Bank of Travancore - A long Tradition of Trust
6. Allahabad Bank - A Tradition of Trust
7. Andhra Bank – Where India Banks
8. Bank of Baroda - India’s International Bank
9. Bank of India - Relationship beyond banking
10. Bhartiya Mahila Bank – Empowering Women
11. Bank of Maharashtra - One family one bank
12. Canara Bank – Together We Can
13. Central Bank of India – “Central To you Since 1911”
14. Corporation Bank – A Premier Public Sector Bank
15. Dena Bank - Trusted Family Bank
16. ECGC Bank – You focus on exports. We cover the risks
17. IDBI Bank – Banking For All, “Aao Sochein Bada”
18. Indian Bank – Your Tech- Friendly Bank
19. Indian Overseas Bank – Good people to grow with
20. Punjab National Bank - The name you can bank upon
21. Punjab & Sind Bank – Where service is a way of life
22. Oriental Bank of Commerce – Where every individual is committed
23. UCO Bank – Honours Your Trust
24. Union Bank of India – Good People to Bank with
25. United Bank of India – The Bank that begins with “U”
26. Vijaya Bank - A friend you can bank on
27. Axis Bank – Badhti Ka naam Zindagi
28. ICICI Bank – Hum Hai Na, Khyal Apka
29. HDFC Bank - We understand your world indeed
30. Yes Bank – Experience our Expertise
31. HSBC - The world’s local bank
List Of Important Days - National & International
January 1 - Global Family Day, Army Medical Corps Establishment Day
January 6 - World War Orphans Day
January 9 - NRI Day or Pravasi Bhartiya Diwas
January 10 - World Laughter Day
January 11 - Death anniversary of Lal Bahadur Shastri
January 12 - National Youth Day or Birthday of Swami Vivekananda
January 15 - National Army Day
January 23 - Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose's Birth Anniversary
January 24 - National Girl Child Day of India
January 25 - National Tourism Day, National Voters Day
January 26 - Republic Day of India, International Customs duty day
January 27 - International Holocaust Remembrance Day
January 28 - Data Protection Day,Birth Anniversary of Lala Lajpat Rai
January 30 - National Martyr’s Day or Sarvodaya Day,World Leprosy Eradication Day
February 2 - World Wetlands Day
February 4 - World Cancer Day, national Day of Srilanka, Facebook day
2nd Sunday of February - World Marriage Day
February 6 - International Day against Female Genital Mutilation
February 11 - World Day of the Sick
February 12 - Darwin Day
February 13 - World Radio Day, National womens day or Sarojini Naydu’s Birthday
February 14 - Valantine's Day
February 20 - World Day of Social Justice
February 21 - International Mother Language Day
February 22 - World Scout Day, World Thinking day
February 23 - World Peace and Understanding Day
February 24 - Central Excise Day
February 28 - National Science Day
March 3 - National Defence Day
March 4 - National Safety Day,World Day of the Fight Against Sexual Exploitation, National Security Day
March 8 - International Womens’ Day
March 13 - World Rotaract Day
March 14 - World Pie day
2nd Monday of March - Commonwealth Day
2nd Thursday of March - World Kidney Day
March 15 - World Consumer Rights Day, World Disabled Day, World Contact Day
March 16 - National Vaccination Day
March 18 - National Ordinance Factories Day
March 20 - International Day of Happiness, World sparrow day
March 21 - World Forestry Day, International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, World Poetry Day, World Down Syndrome day, World Puppetry day
3rd Friday of March - World Sleep Day
March 22 - World Water Day
March 23 - World Meteorological Day, Pakistan Day(Youm-e-pakistan)
March 24 - World TB Day, International Day for Achievers
March 25 - International Day of Remembrance – Victims of Slavery and Transatlantic Slave Trade
March 26 - World Purple day(epilepsy awareness day)
March 27 - World Drama Day or World Theater Day
April 1 - Orissa Day, April fool's day
April 2 - World Autism Awareness Day
April 4 - International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action
April 5 - National Maritime Day
April 7 - World Health Day
April 8 - World Romani Day
April 12 - World Aviation & Cosmonauts Day
April 13 - Jallianwallah Bagh Massacre Day
April 14 - B.R.Ambedkar Remembrance Day
April 15 - World day of Silence, Day of Dialogue
April 17 - World Haemophilia Day
April 18 - World Heritage Day
April 21 - World Creativity and Innovation Day, National Secrataries day, National Civil Services Day
April 22 - World Earth Day
April 23 - World Book and Copyright Day, World English Language Day
April 24 - World Lab Animals Day
April 25 - World Malaria Day, Italy Liberation Day
April 26 - World Intellectual Property Day
April 28 - International Worker’s Memorial Day, World day for Safety and Health at work
April 29 - World Dance Day
April 30 - International Jazz Day
May 01 - World Labour Day or May Day or Workers Day, Maharashtra Day
May 03 - Press Freedom Day(Intl.), International Sun Day, World Asthma Day, International Energy Day
May 04 - Coal Miners Day(Intl.), International Firefighters’ Day
1st Sunday of May - World Laughter Day
May 05 - World Athletics Day, World Midwives Day
May 06 - World No Diet Day
May 08 - World Red Cross Day or Red Crescent Day, Remembrance and Reconciliation for Lost Lives of Second World War
May 09 - World Thalassaemia Day
2nd sunday of May - World Mother Day
May 10 - International Migratory Bird Day
May 11 - National technology day
May 12 - International Nurses Day
May 13 - International Criminal Court Day
May 15 - International Day of the Families
May 17 - World Tele-communication and Information Society Day, Wold AIDS Vaccination day,World Hypertension Day, International day against Homophobia and Transphobia
May 18 - World Museum Day
May 20 - World Meteorology Day
May 21 - National Anti Terrorism Day, National Day for Cultural Development
May 22 - International Day for Biological Diversity
May 24 - Commonwealth Day
May 25 - World Missing Childrens day
May 29 - International Day of Peacekeepers
May 31 - World Anti Tobacco Day
June 1 - Global Day of Parents
June 4 - World Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression
June 5 - World Environment Day
June 8 - World Brain Tumor Day, World Oceans Day
June 12 - World Day Against Child Labor
June 14 - World Blood Donor Day
June 15 - World elder abuse awareness day
3rd Sunday of June - World Father’s Day
June 16 - International Integration Day
June 18 - International Picnic Day
June 20 - World Refugee Day
June 21 - World Music Day
June 23 - International Olympic Day, United Nations Public Service Day, International Widows Day
June 26 - International Day against Drug abuse and Illicit Trafficking, International Day in support of Victims of torture
July 1 - International Joke Day, world Doctor’s Day
July 2 - World Sports Journalists Day, World UFO day
1st Saturday of July - International Day of Cooperatives
July 04 - America Indipendence Day
July 06 - World Zoonoses Day
JUly 07 - World Chocolate Day
July 11 - World Population Day
July 12 - International Malala Day
July 18 - International Nelson Mandela Day
July 26 - Kargil Vijay Diwas or Kargil Memorial Day or Kargil Victory Day
July 28 - World Nature Conservation Day, World Hepatitis Day
July 29 - International Tiger Day
First Sunday in August - International Friendship Day
August 6 - Hiroshima Day, Anti Nuclear Day
August 8 - World Senior Citizen Day
August 9 - Nagasaki Day, International Day of the World’s Indigenous People, Quit India Day
August 12 - International Youth Day
August 13 - International Left Handers Day
August 14 - Pakistan’s Indipendence Day
August 15 - India’s Independence Day, International Mourning Day
August 19 - World Humanitarian Day, World Photography Day
August 20 - National Sadbhavna Divas or Birthday of Rajiv gandhi, World Mosquito Day, Indain Akshay Urja Diwas or day
August 21 - National Senior Citizen Day
August 23 - International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and Its Abolition
August 29 - National Sports Day or Dhyanchand's Birthday
August 30 - International day of the victims of enforced Disappearances
September 2 - World Coconut Day
September 5 - National Teacher’s Day or Dr. Radhakrishanan's Birth Day, Sanskrit Day
September 7 - World Forgiveness Day
September 8 - World Literacy Day
September 10 - World Anti-Suicide Day
September 14 - Hindi Diwas or Hindi Day, World First Aid Day
September 15 - International Day of Democracy, International Engineer’s Day
September 16 - World Ozone Day
September 20 - RPF Foundation day
September 21 - World Peace Day or International day for Peace and Non-violence (UN), World Alzheimer’s Day
September 22 - World Cancer Free Day or Rose Day
September 23 - International Day of the Deaf
September 26 - World Contraception Day, european day of languages
September 27 - World Tourism Day
September 28 - World Rabies Day
September 29 - World Heart Day
1st Monday of October - World Habitat Day
October 1 - World Vegetarian Day, International Day of the older/Elderly
October 2 - Gandhi Jayanti, International Day of Non-Violence
October 3 - World Nature Day
October 4 - World Animal Day
October 5 - World Teacher’s Day
October 6 - World Wildlife Day
October 8 - Indian Air Force Day
October 9 - World Postal or Post-office Day
October 10 - World Mental Health Day, National Post-office Day
October 11 - International Day of the Girl Child
2nd Thursday of October - World Sight Day
October 12 - World Arthritis Day
October 13 - International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction
October 14 - World Standards Day
October 15 - Global Hand Washing Day, International Day of Rural Women, World White Cane Safety Day
October 16 - World Food Day
October 17 - International Poverty Day for it's Eradication
October 20 - World Osteoporosis Day,World Statistics Day, National Solidarity day
October 24 - UN Day, World Development Information Day, World Polio Day
October 27 - World day for Audio Visual Heritage
October 28 - International Animation Day
October 31 - World Savings Day or wold Thrift day, Halloween Day
November 1 - World Vegan Day
November 6 - International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict
November 7 - Infant Protection Day, World Cancer Awareness Day
November 8 - World Radiology Day
November 9 - World Legal Service Day
November 10 - World Science day for Peace and Development, Public Transport Day
November 11 - National Education Day
November 12 - World Pneumonia Day, Public Service Broadcasting Day
November 13 - World Kindness Day
November 14 - Children’s Day(India), World Diabetes Day
November 16 - International Day for Endurance or Tolerance
November 17 - International Students Day, Gurunanak Dev's Birth Anniversary, National eplilepsy day
November 19 - World Toilet Day, International Men’s Day, National Integration Day
November 20 - Universal Children’s Day
3rd Sunday of November - World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims
3rd Thursday of November - World Philosophy Day
November 21 - World Fisheries Day, World Hello Day, World Television Day
November 25 - International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women, World Non-Veg day
November 26 - National Law Day or National constitution Day
November 30 - National Flag Day
December 1 - World AIDS Day
December 2 - World Computer Literacy Day, International Day for the Abolition of Slavery
December 3 - International Day of People with Disability or World Disability Day
December 4 - Indian Navy Day
December 5 - International Volunteer Day for Economic and Social Development
December 7 - International Civil Aviation Day, Indian Armed Force Flag Day
December 9 - The International Anti-Corruption Day
December 10 - World Human Rights Day,International Children's Day of Broadcasting
December 11 - International Mountain Day, UNICEF Day
December 14 - National Energy Conservation Day(India)
December 16 - Vijay Diwas
December 18 - International Migrants Day, National Minority Rights Day
December 19 - Goa’s Libration Day
December 20 - International Human Solidarity Day
December 23 - National Farmer’s Day or Kisan Diwas
December 25 - Christmas Day
● भारतीय संविधान सभा की प्रथम बैठक कब हुई— 9 दिसंबर, 1946 ई.
● संविधान सभा का स्थाई अध्यक्ष कौन था— डॉ. राजेन्द्र प्रसाद
● संविधान सभा का अस्थाई अध्यक्ष कौन था— डॉ. सच्चिदानंद सिन्हा
● संविधान सभा की प्रारूप समिति के अध्यक्ष कौन थे— डॉ. भीमराव अंबेडकर
● संविधान सभा का औपचारिक रूप से प्रतिपादन किसने किया— एम. एन. राय
● भारत में संविधान सभा गठित करने का आधार क्या था— कैबिनेट मिशन योजना (1946 ई.)
● सर्वप्रथम भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस द्वारा संविधान सभा के गठन की मांग कब और कहाँ रखी गई—1936 ई., फैजपुर
● कैबिनेट मिशन योजना के अनुसार संविधान सभा में कितने सदस्य होने थे— 389
● संविधान के पुनर्गठन के फलस्वरूप 1947 तक संविधान सभा में सदस्यों की संख्या कितनी रह गई—299
● संविधान सभा में देशी रियासतों के कितने प्रतिनिधि थे— 70
● संविधान के गठन की मांग सर्वप्रथम 1895 में किस व्यक्ति ने की— बाल गंगाधर तिलक
● संविधान सभा में किस देशी रियासत के प्रतिनिधि ने भाग नहीं लिया— हैदराबाद
● बी. आर. अंबेडकर कहाँ से संविधान सभा में निर्वाचित हुए— बंगाल से
● संविधान सभा का संवैधानिक सलाहकार किसे नियुक्त किया गया था— बी. एन. राव
● संविधान सभा की प्रारूप समिति का गठन कब हुआ— 29 अगस्त, 1947 ई.
● संविधान की प्रारूप समिति के समक्ष प्रस्तावना का प्रस्ताव किसने रखा— जवाहर लाल नेहरू
● भारत में संविधान कब लगा हुआ— 26 जनवरी, 1950 ई.
● संविधान सभा की संघीय शक्ति समिति के अध्यक्ष कौन थे— जवाहर लाल नेहरू
● संविधान सभा की रचना हेतु संविधान का विचार सर्वप्रथम किसने प्रस्तुत किया— स्वराज पार्टी ने (1924 ई.)
● संविधान को बनाने में कितना समय लगा— 2 वर्ष 11 माह 18 दिन
● संविधान में कितने अनुच्छेद हैं— 444
● संविधान में कितने अध्याय हैं— 22
● भारतीय संविधान में कितनी अनुसूचियाँ हैं— 12
● संविधान सभा के सभी निर्णय किस आधार पर लिये गए— सहमति और समायोजन के आधार पर
● संविधान सभा का पहला अधिवेशन कहाँ हुआ— दिल्ली में
● संविधान सभा का चुनाव किस आधार पर हुआ— वर्गीय मताधिकार पर
● भारत का संविधान कैसा है— लिखित एंव विश्व का सबसे व्यापक संविधान
● भारतीय संविधन का स्वरूप होता है— संरचना में संघात्मक
● भारत में किस प्रकार का शासन व्यवस्था अपनाई गई है— ब्रिटिश संसदात्मक प्रणाली
● भारतीय संविधान का अभिभावक कौन है— सर्वोच्च न्यायालय
● भारत के संविधान में संघीय शब्द की जगह किन शब्दों को स्थान दिया गया है— राज्यों का संघ
● भारतीय संविधान में कितनी सूचियाँ हैं— 12
● भारतीय संविधान अपना अधिकार किससे प्राप्त करता है— भारतीय जनता से
● भारत में वैद्य प्रभुसत्ता किस में निहित है— संविधान में
● भारतीय संविधान की संरचना किस प्रकार की है— कुछ एकात्मक, कुछ कठोर
● लिखित संविधान की अवधारणा ने कहाँ जन्म लिया— फ्रांस
● अध्यक्षात्मक शासन का उदय सर्वप्रथम कहाँ हुआ— संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका
● भारतीय संविधान में नागरिकों को कितने मूल अधिकार प्राप्त है— 6
● भारतीय संघीय व्यवस्था की प्रमुख विशेषता क्या है— संविधान की सर्वोच्चता
● भारतीय संघवाद व्यवस्था की प्रमुख विशेषता क्या है— संविधान की सर्वोच्चता
● भारतीय संघवाद को किसने सहकारी संघवाद कहा— जी. ऑस्टिन ने
● भारत में प्रजातंत्र किस तथ्य पर आधरित है— जनता को सरकार चनने व बदलने का अधिकार है
● भारतीय संविधान संसदीय प्रणाली किस देश के संविधान से ली गई है— इंग्लैंड
● भारतीय संविधान का कौन-सा लक्षण आयरिश संविधान से अनुप्रेरित है— नीति-निर्देशक तत्व
● भारतीय संविधान का सबसे बड़ा एकाकी स्त्रोत कौन-सा है— गवर्नमेंट ऑफ इंडिया एक्ट, 1935
● भारतीय संविधान की संघीय व्यवस्था किस देश की संघीय व्यवस्था से समानता रखती है— कनाडा
● संविधान में समवर्ती सूची की प्रेरणा कहाँ से ली गई है— ऑस्ट्रेलिया
● भारतीय संविधान में मौलिक कर्तव्यों को किस देश से लिया गया है— रुस के संविधान से
● राज्य में कलेक्टर का पद औपनिवेशिक शासन ने किस देश से उधार लिया था— इंग्लैंड से
● ‘कानून के समक्ष समान संरक्षण’ वाक्य कहाँ से लिया गया है— संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका से
● सर्वोच्च न्यायालय की व्यवस्था भारतीय संविधान ने किस देश के संविधान से ली है— संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका
● भारतीय संविधान की संशोधन प्रक्रिया किस देश के संविधान से प्रभावित है— दक्षिण अफ्रीका
● ‘विधि के समक्ष समता’ कहाँ से ली गई है— इंग्लैंड से
● वह संवैधानिक दस्तावेज कौन-सा है जिसका भारतीय संविधान तैयार करने में गहरा प्रभाव पड़ा—भारत सरकार अधिनिमय 1935
● भारत के राष्ट्रपति की आपातकालीन शक्तियाँ किस देश से ली गई हैं— जर्मनी के वीमार संविधान से
● भारत के सविधान में मूल अधिकार किस देश के संविधान से प्रेरित है— संयुक्त के वीमर संविधान से
● संविधान में ‘कानून द्वारा स्थापित’ शब्दावली किस देश के संविधान से ली गई है— संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका
● प्रस्तावना की भाषा किस देश से ली गई है— ऑस्ट्रेलिया
● पहला संशोधन (1951) —इस संशोधन द्वारा नौवीं अनुसूची को शामिल किया गया।
● दूसरा संशोधन (1952) —संसद में राज्यों के प्रतिनिधित्व को निर्धारित किया गया।
● सातवां संशोधन (1956) —इस संशोधन द्वारा राज्यों का अ, ब, स और द वर्गों में विभाजन समाप्त कर उन्हें 14 राज्यों और 6 केंद्रशासित क्षेत्रों में विभक्त कर दिया गया।
● दसवां संशोधन (1961) —दादरा और नगर हवेली को भारतीय संघ में शामिल कर उन्हें संघीय क्षेत्र की स्थिति प्रदान की गई।
● 12वां संशोधन (1962) —गोवा, दमन और दीव का भारतीय संघ में एकीकरण किया गया।
● 13वां संशोधन (1962) —संविधान में एक नया अनुच्छेद 371 (अ) जोड़ा गया, जिसमें नागालैंड के प्रशासन के लिए कुछ विशेष प्रावधान किए गए। 1दिसंबर, 1963 को नागालैंड को एक राज्य की स्थिति प्रदान कर दी गई।
● 14वां संशोधन (1963) —पांडिचेरी को संघ राज्य क्षेत्र के रूप में प्रथम अनुसूची में जोड़ा गया तथा इन संघ राज्य क्षेत्रों (हिमाचल प्रदेश, गोवा, दमन और दीव, पांडिचेरी और मणिपुर) में विधानसभाओं की स्थापना की व्यवस्था की गई।
● 21वां संशोधन (1967) —आठवीं अनुसूची में ‘सिंधी’ भाषा को जोड़ा गया।
● 22वां संशोधन (1968) —संसद को मेघालय को एक स्वतंत्र राज्य के रूप में स्थापित करने तथा उसके लिए विधानमंडल और मंत्रिपरिषद का उपबंध करने की शक्ति प्रदान की गई।
● 24वां संशोधन (1971) —संसद को मौलिक अधिकारों सहित संविधान के किसी भी भाग में संशोधन का अधिकार दिया गया।
● 27वां संशोधन (1971) —उत्तरी-पूर्वी क्षेत्र के पाँच राज्यों तत्कालीन असम, नागालैंड, मेघालय, मणिपुर व त्रिपुरा तथा दो संघीय क्षेत्रों मिजोरम और अरुणालच प्रदेश का गठन किया गया तथा इनमें समन्वय और सहयोग के लिए एक ‘पूर्वोत्तर सीमांत परिषद्’ की स्थापना की गई।
● 31वां संशोधन (1974) —लोकसभा की अधिकतम सदंस्य संख्या 547 निश्चित की गई। इनमें से 545 निर्वाचित व 2 राष्ट्रपति द्वारा मनोनीत होंगे।
● 36वां संशोधन (1975) —सिक्किम को भारतीय संघ में संघ के 22वें राज्य के रूप में प्रवेश प्रदान किया गया।
● 37वां संशोधन (1975) —अरुणाचल प्रदेश में व्यवस्थापिका तथा मंत्रिपरिषद् की स्थापना की गई।
● 42वां संशोधन (1976) —इसे ‘लघु संविधान’ (Mini Constitution) की संज्ञा प्रदान की गई है।
—इसके द्वारा संविधान की प्रस्तावना में ‘धर्मनिरपेक्ष’, ‘समाजवादी’ और ‘अखंडता’ शब्द जोड़े गए।
—इसके द्वारा अधिकारों के साथ-साथ कत्र्तव्यों की व्यवस्था करते हुए नागरिकों के 10 मूल कर्त्तव्य निश्चित किए गए।
—लोकसभा तथा विधानसभाओं के कार्यकाल में एक वर्ष की वृद्धि की गई।
—नीति-निर्देशक तत्वों में कुछ नवीन तत्व जोड़े गए।
—इसके द्वारा शिक्षा, नाप-तौल, वन और जंगली जानवर तथा पक्षियों की रक्षा, ये विषय राज्य सूची से निकालकर समवर्ती सूची में रख दिए गए।
—यह व्यवस्था की गई कि अनुच्छेद 352 के अन्तर्गत आपातकाल संपूर्ण देश में लागू किया जा सकता है या देश के किसी एक या कुछ भागों के लिए।
—संसद द्वारा किए गए संविधान संशोधन को न्यायालय में चुनौती देने से वर्जित कर दिया गया।
● 44वां संशोधन (1978) —संपत्ति के मूलाधिकार को समाप्त करके इसे विधिक अधिकार बना दिया गया।
—लोकसभा तथा राज्य विधानसभाओं की अवधि पुनः 5 वर्ष कर दी गई।
—राष्ट्रपति, उपराष्ट्रपति, प्रधानमंत्री और लोकसभा अध्यक्ष्ज्ञ के चुनाव विवादों की सुनवाई का अधिकार पुनः सर्वोच्च तथा उच्च न्यायालय को ही दे दिया गया।
— मंत्रिमंडल द्वारा राष्ट्रपति को जो भी परामार्श दिया जाएगा, राष्ट्रपति मंत्रिमंडल को उस पर दोबारा विचार करने लिए कह सकेंगे लेकिन पुनर्विचार के बाद मंत्रिमंडल राष्ट्रपति को जो भी परामर्श देगा, राष्ट्रपति उस परामर्श को अनिवार्यतः स्वीकार करेंगे।
—‘व्यक्ति के जीवन और स्वतंत्रता के अधिकार’ को शासन के द्वारा आपातकाल में भी स्थगित या सीमित नहीं किया जा सकता, आदि।
● 52वां संशोधन (1985) —इस संशेधन द्वारा संविधान में दसवीं अनुसूची जोड़ी गई। इसके द्वारा राजनीतिक दल-बदल पर कानूनी रोक लगाने की चेष्टा की गई है।
● 55वां संशोधन (1986) —अरुणाचल प्रदेश को भारतीय संघ के अन्तर्गत राज्य की दर्जा प्रदान किया गया।
● 56वां संशोधन (1987) —इसमें गोवा को पूर्ण राज्य का दर्जा देने तथा ‘दमन व दीव’ को नया संघीय क्षेत्र बनाने की व्यवस्था है।
● 61वां संशोधन (1989) —मताधिकार के लिए न्यूनतम आवश्यक आयु 21 वर्ष से घटाकर 18 वर्ष कर दी गई।
● 65वां संशोधन (1990) —‘अनुसूचित जाति तथा जनजाति आयोग’ के गठन की व्यवस्था की गई।
● 69वां संशोधन (1991) —दिल्ली का नाम ‘राष्ट्रीय राजधानी राज्य क्षेत्र दिल्ली’ किया गया तथा इसके लिए 70 सदस्यीय विधानसभा तथा 7 सदस्यीय मंत्रिमंडल के गठन का प्रावधान किया गया।
● 70वां संशोधन (1992) —दिल्ली तथा पांडिचेरी संघ राज्य क्षेत्रों की विधानसभाओं के सदस्यों को राष्ट्रपति के निर्वाचक मंडल में शामिल करने का प्रावधान किया गया।
● 71वां संशोधन (1992) —तीन और भाषाओं कोंकणी, मणिपुरी और नेपाली को संविधान की आठवीं अनुसूची में सम्मिलित किया गया।
● 73वां संशोधन (1992) —संविधान में एक नया भाग 9 तथा एक नई अनुसूची ग्यारहवीं अनुसूची जोड़ी गई और पंचायती राज व्यवस्था को संवैधानिक दर्जा प्रदान किया गया।
● 74वां संशोधन (1993) —संविधान में एक नया भाग 9क और एक नई अनुसूची 12वीं अनुसूची जोड़कर शहरी क्षेत्र की स्थानीय स्वशासन संस्थाओं को संवैधानिक दर्जा प्रदान किया गया।
● 91वां संशोधन (2003) —इसमें दल-बदल विरोधी कानून में संशोधन किया गया।
● 92वां संशोधन (2003) —इसमें आठवीं अनुसूची में चार और भाषाओं-मैथिली, डोगरी, बोडो और संथाली को जोड़ा गया।
● 93वां संशोधन (2005) —इसमें एससी/एसटी व ओबीसी बच्चों के लिए गैर-सहायता प्राप्त स्कूलों में 25 प्रतिशत सीटें आरक्षित रखने का प्रावधान किया गया।
● 97वां संशोधन (2011) —इसमें संविधान के भाग 9 में भाग 9ख जोड़ा गया और हर नागरिक को कोऑपरेटिव सोसाइटी के गठन का अधिकार दिया गया।
● भारतीय संविधान में कुल कितने अनुच्छेद हैं— 444
● भारतीय संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद में यह लिखा है कि भारत राज्यों का एक संघ होगा— अनुच्छेद-1
● किस अनुच्छेद में नागरिकों को मौलिक अधिकार प्रदान किए गए हैं— अनुच्छेद 12-35
● किस अनुच्छेद में नागरिकता संबंधी प्रावधान है— अनुच्छेद 5-11
● नौकरियों तथा शैक्षणिक संस्थाओं में समाज के कमजोर वर्गों के लिए आरक्षण उपलब्ध कराने के लिए केंद्र सरकार को कौन-सा अनुच्छेद अधिकार प्रदान करता है— अनुच्छेद-16
● संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद में राज्य में नीति-निर्देशक तत्वों का उल्लेख है— अनुच्छेद 36-51
● भारतीय संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद में कल्याणकारी राज्य की अवधारणा वर्णित है— अनुच्छेद-39
● संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत भारत में राष्ट्रपति पर महाभियोग चलाया जा सकता है—अनुच्छेद-61
● किस अनुच्छेद में मंत्रिगण सामूहिक रुप से लोकसभा के प्रति उत्तरदायी होते हैं— अनुच्छेद-75
● महान्यायवादी की नियुक्ति किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत की जाती है— अनुच्छेद-76
● संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत राष्ट्रपति लोकसभा भंग कर सकता है— अनुच्छेद-85
● किस अनुच्छेद में संसद के संयुक्त अधिवेशन का प्रावधान है— अनुच्छेद-108
● संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद में धन विधेयक की परिभाषा दी गई है— अनुच्छेद-110
● संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत राष्ट्रपति अध्यादेश जारी करता है— अनुच्छेद-123
● संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद में सर्वोच्च न्यायालय के न्यायधीश पर महाभियोग चलाया जा सकता है—अनुच्छेद-124
● राष्ट्रपति किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत सर्वोच्च न्यायालय से परामर्श मांग सकता है— अनुच्छेद-233
● किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत केंद्र के पास अवशिष्ट शक्तियाँ है— अनुच्छेद-248
● किस अनुच्छेद में अंतर्राष्ट्रीय समझौते लागू करने के लिए शक्ति प्रदान की गई है— अनुच्छेद-253
● किस अनुच्छेद के तहत राष्ट्रपति वित्त आयोग का गठन करता है— अनुच्छेद-280
● संपत्ति का अधिकार किस अनुच्छेद में है— अनुच्छेद-300 (क)
● संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद में संघ और राज्यों के लिए लोकसेवा आयोग का प्रावधान है—अनुच्छेद-315
● किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत हिन्दी भाषा को राजकीय भाषा घोषित किया गया है— अनुच्छेद-343 (I)
● संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद के तहत अनुसूचित जनजातियों के लिए एक राष्ट्रीय आयोग के गठन का प्रावधान है— अनुच्छेद-338 (A)
● संसद को संविधान संशोधन का अधिकार किस अनुच्छेद में है— अनुच्छेद-368
● संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत संविधान की प्रक्रिया का उल्लेख है— अनुच्छेद-356
● संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद में ‘मंत्रिमंडल’ शब्द का प्रयोग संविधान में एक बार हुआ है—अनुच्छेद-352
● जम्मू-कश्मीर को किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत विशेष दर्जा प्राप्त है— अनुच्छेद-370
● अनुच्छेद-356 का संबंध किससे है— राष्ट्रपति शासन से
● भारतीय संविधान में समानता का अधिकार पाँच अनुच्छेदों द्वारा प्रदान किया गया है, वे कौन-से हैं—अनुच्छेद-14-18
● संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद में मूल कर्तव्यों का उल्लेख है— अनुच्छेद-51 (क)
● ‘भारत के नागरिक का कर्तव्य होगा प्राकृतिक पर्यावरण का संरक्षण एवं सुधार’ यह कथन किस अनुच्छेद में है— अनुच्छेद-(A)
● संविधान के किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत राज्य सरकार को ग्राम पंचायत के संगठन का निर्देश दिया गया है— अनुच्छेद-40
● वर्तमान में संविधान में कितनी अनुसूचियाँ हैं— 12
● संविधान की द्वितीय अनुसूची का संबंध किस से है— महत्वपूर्ण पद अधिकारियों के वेतन-भत्तों से
● कौन-सी अनुसूची में 22 भाषाओं को मान्यता दी गई है— आठवीं अनुसूची
● दल-बदल के आधार पर निर्वाचित सदस्यों की अयोग्यता संबंधी विवरण किस अनुसूची में है— 10वीं अनुसूची
● संविधान की छठी अनुसूची किस राज्य में लागू नहीं होता है— मणिपुर
● किस राज्य के आरक्षण विधेयक को 9वीं अनुसूची में सम्मिलिति किया गया है— तमिलनाडु
● भारतीय संविधान की कौन-सी अनुसूची राज्य में नामों की सूची तथा राज्य क्षेत्रों का ब्यौरा देती है—पहली अनुसूची
● भारतीय संविधान में 9वीं अनुसूची परिवर्तित हुई— प्रथम संशोधन द्वारा
● किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत उपराष्ट्रपति पद की व्यवस्था है— अनुच्छेद-63
● वित्तीय आपात की घोषणा किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत होती है— अनुच्छेद-360
● राष्ट्रीय पिछड़ा आयोग का गठन किस अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत किया जाता है— अनुच्छेद-340
● किस अनुसूची में केंद्र व राज्यों के बीच शक्तियों के बंटवारे का वर्णन है— सातवीं अनुसूची में
● समवर्ती सूची किस राज्य में संबंधित नहीं है— जम्मू-कश्मीर से
● संविधान लागू होने के समय समवर्ती सूची में कितने विषय थे— 47 विषय
● वर्तमान में राज्य सूची में कितने विषय हैं— 66 विषय
● वर्तमान में संघ सूची में कितने विषय हैं— 97 विषय
● किस अनुसूची में असम, मेघालय, त्रिपुरा व मिजोरम राज्यों के जनजाति क्षेत्रों के प्रशासन के बारे में प्रावधान है— छठीं अनुसूची में
The Direction Your Career Takes Is Up To You
Does your career seem to be going nowhere fast? Is it because of the economy, your company, your boss, or your co-workers? Is it everyone's fault but your own?
Your career gets better when you make it better and that requires your participation. Circumstances can throw us off-track from time to time. But, the person
responsible for the direction of your career is you. (Even if it does not feel that way.)
Being responsible for your career sets you free. Once you are accountable, you can assess what's working, and eliminate what's not. You can make changes that need to be made because you know you are the person who can make them.
Once you take responsibility, you have no one to blame anymore. You get the control back into your career. You can move forward because you know you have to power to
So How Do You Take Responsibility For Your Career.
Follow These Five Steps Below:
1. You Decide To Be Responsible
An attitude that begins with "I don't care" or "I'll wait for things to improve on their own" can one day become a problem that is so overwhelming that you are
not sure how to deal with it. (Don't let this happen to you. If you are already overwhelmed by a complacent attitude, know that there is a way out.) If you do not
deal with your career now, you will have to deal with it later. If you are not working on your career, your career moves without direction. No direction means no goals, which means no progress.
Being responsible does not mean you are chained to your commitments. It means that you recognize that if your career is not going in the direction that you would
like it to go that it's up to you to take it in a different path.
2. You Find Someone Who You Can Help With Their Career
What? Help others? What about me?
Sometimes when we are upset about our careers we go inward. Introspection is good when it helps us regroup. Not good when all we think about is our career
problems. Looking to helps others can motivate you to take action. Helping a colleague with career challenges will give you objectivity about your situation. You'll
also get energized, inspired, and motivated. And, you'll feel better. Helping someone else will help you move forward in ways that you'd never imagine.
3. You Become Inspired
My clients ask me what inspiration means. I tell them that inspiration is an almighty force that arises from inside. It lights you up and gives you more power than
you ever expected. It's what pushes you to pick up the phone, write another letter, or send out another e-mail when you don't feel like it. Recall a time in your career when you were excited and energized because
everything was going your way. Apply that feeling to where you are now.
To become inspired, put your disappointments behind you. They serve only to hold you back. Recognize that your career will improve when you take responsibility for improving it. Inspiration will help you to change your career for the better.
4. You Create A Plan
What do you want to happen in your career? Are you crystal clear or do you have a muddied idea of where you would like to be?
You cannot get to where you want to go unless you know where you are going.
How do you know? You listen to your gut. You listen to that nagging feeling inside that won't go away. You take small steps in that direction. Will you have all of your answers up front? No. But if it feels right, it probably is right.
Create your vision. Where would you be if you could not fail? What would you do if there were no obstacles in your way? Get your vision on paper and look at it
everyday. Then, develop a plan for reaching your goal. What will you do first? Second? Third? When will you do it? Get this down on paper and use your calendar to keep you on track. Once you know what you want, the
rest is implementation.
5. You Achieve Your Goals
Goals are achieved when you are working hard towards them on a regular basis. Your goals may not be reached on your timetable (most goals are not), but trust that you will get there. Know that the work you put in today will bring the rewards you seek tomorrow.
Appreciative Inquiry is the act of exploring and recognizing
the best in people and the world around us. The key to this
philosphy to to seek and discover how to improve and work towards
Do you believe that despite the complaints and problems
encountered in your organization, there is nonetheless
significant good work and results occurring? Do you want to
find a way to fan the flames of these positives so that they
engulf your entire organization? Let’s admit it – sometimes our
problem-centered focus places too much attention on the negative.
Perhaps it’s time for a new approach. We can seek to discover
the excellence already present in our organizations – just as
Michelangelo is reported to have said that he saw an angel in the
rock and carved to set it free.
Having a positive vision is the underlying premise of
Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry is a philosophy but it
is also practical since it suggests a particular method of
changing social systems. In its most basic form, an appreciative
inquiry is about asking questions about the best of what is and
what has been. The information is like a discovery that lends
itself to dreaming about the positive future and finally,
designing the action plan to make it happen.
For example, a consultant or trainer is frequently in the
position of needing to understand the training needs of a client
company. Here are several potential questions that could be used
in appreciative interviews:
• Describe a time when you took part in professional development
that was especially energizing and enlivening. Who was involved?
What happened? Describe the event in detail.
• If you could imagine or transform the professional development
available in any way you wished, what one to three things would
you like to see happen to enhance its vitality and effectiveness?
• What do you imagine your own role might be in helping to make
this happen? Who could work with you?
The resulting qualitative data would be most efficiently analyzed
by computer software such as text retrievers, code and retrieve
programs and conceptual network builders. Such software programs
would help draw valid meaning from the data by reducing it, help
to identify patterns through comparative analysis and go beyond
the narrative text to display the data in matrices.
Depression is the most prevalent disease of our time. Under the guise of informing the public, both the medical profession and the media are constantly "warning" us of the dangers and probabilities of the disease most likely to terminate us. News about a lack of sufficient influenza vaccine is enough to get our collective blood pressure soaring.
Bad news is chronic and it affects us all. Do I have a magic pill that will make all the bad go away? No. But, there are ways to help us stay out of depression.
Live One Day At a Time
The Bible admonishes us to live each day to the fullest as there's enough evil in one day to handle! Don't look back on past hurts, nor fret about tomorrow. Live today as if it is the only day you have. Make each day so full of the present that yesterday and its problems are completely shut out and tomorrow is unattainable! Choose to focus all your thoughts and energy on what is at hand, and do everything to the best of your ability.
Watch Your Tongue!
The power of life and death are in the tongue. Words can both bless and curse. Negative words can evoke great fear and anxiety. The mind paints a picture of every word we hear or see. Although words are not tangible, they have the power to bring about physical matter! The earth was created by the Word of God's Power! Negative words always produce negative impulses, whether minute or major. Conversely, positive words make you feel good. A mere smile and a happy: "Have a great day!" instantly exude warmth. So, be careful of what you allow to sink deeply into your subconscious.
Happiness Is a Choice
We can choose to dwell on bad news and perpetuate it by speaking about it, or to swiftly replace our thoughts and words with constructive ones. Whenever we hear good music, our feet start tapping, we’re humming the melody, and pretty soon we're happy. Our thoughts respond to what we feed the mind through our senses. Therefore, we CAN choose to be happy! Start practicing to switch off the minuses in your life and concentrate on the pluses.
Gratitude; the Antidote
Thankfulness is one of the greatest virtues. If you divided a page in two and wrote all your setbacks on one side and all the blessings on the other, you would find that your blessings far outnumber the negatives. The Bible says to give thanks with a grateful heart for all things.
God Is In Control!
Start each day by thanking God, your creator and loving father. He knew you before you were born and knows your end. Spend time in the Word, especially the Psalms. You will receive a new refreshing, empowerment and warmth.
Some Practical Recommendations
1) Get lots of sunshine. Melatonin, a hormone produced only in the dark, lowers the body temperature and makes you feel sluggish.
2) Keep busy. Taking frequent strolls, playing sports, or volunteering help chase the blues away.
3) Pamper yourself every now and then. Take a day and just have fun, doing what you like most.
4) Eat nutritiously. Sugar, caffeine, and alcohol will eventually cause anxiety, tension, and internal problems.
5) Socialize. Hang out with people who are up-beat and give moral support.
Blogs have become one of the hottest communication tools on the Web. Offering the opportunity for anyone to create their own free Web site, encouraging opinions and interaction, blogs provide forums for individuals to create their own highly personal presentations to the Web audience. They also provide for consortia of all types to experience the sort of online community feeling that was pioneered by early newsgroups and by the phenomenal success of AOL in the 1990s.
Blogs have reached into the corporate and government sectors as well. What started out as an outlet for teenage expression and grassroots journalism has turned into a lucrative communications tool for small and large businesses alike.
Corporate Blogging refers to a company producing or supporting a blog that it uses to accomplish business objectives. As with anything, there are certain “best practices” to be followed to ensure your company reaps the maximum benefits. These seven tips guidelines will help make your blog a success.
1. Fine Print. Blogging can lead to legal issues. Companies should have real concerns about liability, exclusions and limitations, and indemnity. Although there are laws that protect against libel, misappropriations and other injuries suffered as a result of posts on the Web, companies can still be held “vicariously” responsible for statements made by employees that are harmful to others. Since there are so many legal issues surrounding blogs, it is imperative that the site has some sort of disclaimer and limitation of liability.
2. Know What You’re Doing. Senior management should be educated by the corporate communications and legal department about what blogs are and how they might affect business. That way, they can be contributing members of the blog, further improving employee relations. Their support and participation is often what makes a blog more effective.
3. Create blogging policies. In any medium where an employee is sharing information, there is the possibility of leaking trade secrets or financial information. Blogging also has a tendency to become personal. A company should have a list of policies regarding blogging to ensure that trade secrets are kept secret and personal lives do not become public. Policies may include keeping financial information from being posted, as well as severe consequences for anyone using the blog for negative publicity.
4. Avoid the Marketing Blog. Making your blog into a blatant marketing campaign is a bad idea. Customers are looking for real answers and honest opinions. They will pick up on insincerity instantly. Use the blog for what it's for, transparency. This is an opportunity to make a real connection with your customers. Don't ruin it by filling it with empty advertising.
5. Keep It Fresh. Blogs are usually judged by their amount of new content. Easy to add on to, they are designed to be updated constantly. To keep your readers coming back, make your content relevant and timely. Don't forget, content can include anything from product releases to job openings, recent news to thoughts from the CEO. It's practically impossible to run out of material.
6. Reinforce the company’s core values. Use your blog to reflect your company's inner soul: its mission, goals and direction. A blog is just another medium by which you interact with your customers and employees. It's another part of the brand experience. It should be consistent with the impression the company wants to make.
7. Encourage employees to use it. Create an atmosphere where they are comfortable asserting their opinions and concerns. You’ll be surprised how the quietest employees will speak up when given such an opportunity. With all communication, blogging can become negative, so remind employees of the public nature of the blogs and the ramifications for their actions.
There are many mortgage lead companies out there to choose from. Each with their own individual way of obtaining leads to sell to loan officers. But remember, you get what you pay for.
Lead companies sell their leads in a variety of ways. Some allow you to cherry pick, some allow you to set up a filter, and some only sell in bulk.
The pricing on leads from company to company varies also, as you’ll see, it depends on what you are buying.
Some lead companies buy their leads from other companies and sell them in bulk, or recycle them at a profit.
Some lead companies sell their leads “fresh” or “real time,” meaning the lead is brand new. Approximately ten minutes old by the time it reaches you.
When you are buying leads that have been recycled, you will most likely get a lot of them. Lets suppose you have one hundred dollars to spend on recycled leads. This will get you about fifty leads at two dollars a piece. This is a lot of leads to work with. However, the quality of the leads will leave a lot to be desired. You will also find that you wasted not only your money but your time as well. Calling fifty people takes a while.
Now, if you decide to buy “real time” leads, that same one hundred dollars will get you any where from five to eight leads, but remember, these leads are fresh, they are hot off the press, so your chances of closing a few loans are much better than if you bought recycled leads.
Remember. You get what you pay for.
Also, when you are buying leads, it is important for you to know where the leads are coming from.
Have you ever had the painful experience of calling someone, and having them say to you; You are the twentieth person to call me this week. Or, I applied for that months ago, I closed the loan last week.
I was a loan officer for a number of years and I know the feeling.
When you hear responses like the ones you heard in the above paragraph, it should be an indication to you that the leads you bought have been recycled.
Most likely they have been passed around from lead company to lead company.
When you are doing your research for a good lead company, make sure you talk to a representative from that company, and find out where the leads are coming from. If the representative can’t give you a clear answer than move on.
The best lead companies to deal with are the ones that own and operate their own sites where prospects can come on and fill out on-line applications. This way you know exactly where the lead is coming from, and you don’t have to worry about being the tenth person to buy the same lead.
If you decide to buy leads from a lead company, make sure you do your research. Research is the key. You have worked hard for your money, so make sure the leads you buy give you a good return on your investment.
This article may be reproduced by anyone at any time, as long as the authors name and reference links are kept in tact and active.
Every new employee needs some type of training, and most employees benefit from ongoing training and learning. This training needs to be consistent, useful and easy for both the employee and the employer. It also needs to be convenient and cost effective. One way to accomplish this type of training is with the use of training videos. Training videos are an excellent training tool for businesses looking for customer service and sales skills, safety training, team building, and every other type of training you could possibly think of. Training videos provide the ultimate in versatility for the employer.
One of the greatest advantages of using video training is that it is extremely cost effective. Buying training videos and any additional training material is usually a one-time cost. The videos can then be used over and over and any additional material needed is usually available at low cost. Training videos are also available in a variety of different formats, including VHS, DVD and CD-ROM. The advantage of this variety of format availability is that you can use it with whatever type of system you have and you do not have to upgrade or learn how to operate a new system.
Video training has the added advantage of being able to be done in a group setting with several employees or with just one employee. Training can be done within any timetable, and then put away in the company’s video library for future employees so that they receive the same training as previous employees. This assures that all the employees receive consistent training and it can be easily tracked as to which videos an employee has viewed. Training videos can also be sent home with an employee. Another advantage of these types of videos is that they teach concrete skills in a way that is effective for most employees. Customer service, sales and safety issues are all things that must be learned before an employee can be an asset to the company. A training video accomplishes this in an easy to understand way.
It is easy to find the type of training videos that an employer is looking for. Many office supply companies offer these kinds of training tools, and they are available in abundance on the Internet. Many of these companies that sell training videos will also conduct an assessment to assist an employer in finding out what type of training is necessary for their employees and then suggest appropriate training videos. An employer can purchase just one video or invest in an entire set of training videos tailored to the needs of their business. This makes it an affordable training option for any business, large or small. Training videos are ideal resources that are readily available, extremely affordable, user-friendly and get the kind of results employers are looking for.
So you’re there at that webpage again. Looking at all the smiling faces and all the people telling how they started with five minutes a day and no money down and now they have a vacation home in Aspen. Is it real? Can average Joes and Janes really make it that big?
Yes and no. I have personally met many average people who have made many hundreds of thousands of dollars each in home businesses. Some of them had impressive educations and backgrounds. Some were pretty unimpressive before. I’ve met a tattoo parlor owner, a bouncer, a college coach, and a homemaker. All of them have made multiple six figure incomes. They were average in terms of their education and work background, but there are also some things about them that aren’t average at all.
Did they have to train for years and listen to a home correspondence course of hundreds of CD’s? No. Did they go get another degree? No. Did they just get lucky? I don’t think so. The reason I don’t think so is because they all had a few things in common. Logic tells me that if the things they had in common produced the same result, then maybe that’s not luck.
I have known all of these people personally, and I can show you some of the things that they had in common. If you have/do these things then you also have a great chance at success. If you don’t do these things, then your chances of success are slimmer.
Firstly, each one of them treats their home business like a real business. If you don’t put your business near the top with family and your current job, then guess what – you will continue to have that job. What that comes down to is making decisions like your whole future depends on it. Don’t feel like calling that last contact? Can’t attend that company function? That $2000 for marketing could be used for those new curtains or that new stereo. Those are the key decisions and all these people made them with their business in mind first.
Secondly, they all had a very pressing “why” to their business. For some it was the heartbreak of dropping off their 2-year old in day care. For others it was a divorce or separation and they would have lost everything. In every case these people had a “why” that gripped them like a grandmother who hadn’t seen them in three years.
I have seen people who were asked about why they are doing a business or what their goal was and they were vague such as, “I want to get financially free”, “I want more time at home”, you get the picture. Worse yet some people have a negative reason such as “I want to be out of debt”, or “I hate my job”. Those are NOT going to carry you through the hard times.
If you can’t tell me right now exactly WHY you want to do a business, then you may want to consider figuring that out before you get started. Get really specific and positive. What do you want to accomplish? When do you want to have it by? What are you going to use the $30k in the next month for? How much will you give away?
Once you have concrete answers to these questions, then you are ready to start looking at the how-to. I will discuss the process of figuring out your why in my next article. Don’t miss it!
I just discovered that for the past six months I have been billing a client half of what I should have been. Should I just include the total of the past due balance on his next bill or contact him first to let him know that it's coming? This client has been difficult in the past, so I'd rather not deal with him until I absolutely have to. My partner, on the other hand, thinks we should call the client and let him know what's going on before sending the bill. What do you think? -- Louis K.
A: I think your partner is right. If you think this client has been difficult to deal with in the past just wait until he opens your bill with six months worth of arrears attached to it without prior notice or a full explanation of the amount owed.
Sending such a bill is like dropping a bomb on the client's desk, and I guarantee you the fallout from the resulting explosion would end up landing squarely on your head.
So the question then becomes, how do you collect money that is rightfully owed to you from a client who has a history of being difficult? That's easy, Louis. You make your partner call him.
Seriously, whether the client owes you the money or not is a moot point. Yes, you made an accounting mistake, but if the client agreed to pay you a certain amount each month in exchange for certain services rendered, and you have been under-billing that client for delivering those certain services, the client owes you the money, period.
I have found that in situations like this it is always best to be proactive and face the problem (or what you perceive as a potential problem) as quickly as possible. This will save you hours of needless worry since most of the time the problem is not as big a deal as you imagined it to be.
There can only be three outcomes in this situation.
(1) The client will understand and pay you without argument.
(2) He will argue the point, forcing you to offer a compromise plan.
Or (3) He will flatly refuse to pay, forcing you to decide how far you're willing to go to collect what is owed. You should be prepared for either occurrence before getting face-to-face with the client. Remember this: In a business negotiation, he who is prepared the least gives up the most.
With that in mind, here's how I would handle the situation.
Arrange to meet the client in person. This is much better than trying to explain the situation over the phone because most people (including myself) tend to only give half of their attention when on the phone. The other half is usually focused on things going on around them while they're on the phone.
Once you're in front of the client, downplay the fact that an error was made (since the error did not negatively affect the service the client received). You might even poke fun at yourself over the situation (if the client has a sense of humor, that is). You should then politely ask if he would prefer to have the unbilled balance included on his next invoice or submitted as a separate invoice.
Then close your mouth, smile, and wait for him to respond.
You'll notice that you did not give him the option of not paying the bill, nor did you give him a point of contention to argue over. He should get the message that it goes without saying that he owes the money and needs to pay the bill, but being the wonderful person that you are, you are willing to let him decide how you should be paid.
I'm willing to bet that the client will choose option A or B and that will be the end of that. If this client has been difficult to deal with in the past, he may argue that since the mistake was yours, he shouldn't have to pay the bill. This is, of course, a BS argument (and I don't mean Bachelor of Science), but one that some clients might make just to get out of writing you a check.
As mentioned earlier, you should have prepared for this possibility before going in. If your business can survive without collecting the unpaid balance and you really want to maintain a relationship with this client, you should be prepared to offer a compromise that lets the relationship continue.
Without appearing to be caving under the pressure (this is the hard part) look the client dead in the eye and say, "Mr. Client, since I value your business and the billing mistakes were indeed mine, I'm willing to forego collection on the unpaid balance and start billing the correct amount with your next invoice, which, by the way, I happen to have right here…"
Granted, in this situation you are not going to collect on the past balance, but you are establishing the rules of the game for the future and you might even improve your relationship with this client. The money you forfeit today could lead to an increase in referrals, testimonials, and repeat business tomorrow.
Develop these 5 attributes of a successful music business person, and you will find yourself moving quickly toward your music business goals (and other goals in life)!
1. Thick Skin: you cannot be easily offended or hurt if you want to be successful. There will always be people who are jealous or envious or out to bring someone else down—you must develop a way to see past that and let it roll off your back, like “water off a duck’s back.”
Ducks have feathers that are tight and their density act like oil—it keeps the duck dry and warm. So when water (cold or otherwise) lands on the back of a duck, it simply rolls off. Let criticism roll off your back in a similar manner—because if you are going to be successful, you will have your share of criticism. Count on it.
2. Obedience: although this might seem strange to talk about to adults and not children, it is important to consider that in order to be a leader, you must first learn how to obey a leader. You must learn the principle of loyalty to a leader if you want to lead others.
Once you have learned how to obey and to follow directions, you can lead others and understand what commands and orders do for an organization and an individual. Consider this: 175 of the CEOs of Fortune 500 companies are former US Marines, and 27 US Presidents served in the military.
3. Courage: bravery is not courage, but you cannot have courage without being brave. Courage is the moral fortitude to stand up for your character (touched on in the last article) and to do the right thing—even in the face of adversity.
When you have courage, you follow through on your vision. It’s on display every day and only the courageous have the ability to get the most out of life. When you have the strength of your conviction, find the courage to put it in to action. You won’t be sorry you did.
4. Intolerance: not exactly what you might expect to find in an article about success, but each of us must be intolerant of any number of things: intolerant of abuse, of injustice, of the things that you know are immoral, unethical, or illegal. If there’s anything in this world you should be intolerant of, those are some of them. I hope you are an intolerant person—in the right way.
5. Sense of Humor: if you don’t have a sense of humor, you will fall flat on your face and never be someone who succeeds. A good portion of the road we walk to success is filled with blockades and potholes. If you come up against one and go down, you must have the ability to laugh at the situation and yourself. If you don’t, you will be angry and bitter about your misfortune and never move past it. Laugh at yourself and what you run up against and you’ll find your climb to the top is quicker and more enjoyable than you thought it would be.
One of the key things that we teach salespeople is that your job in sales is to understand what it is that people do, and then to help them do it better. For only by understanding what people do; how they do it, why they do it that way, when they do it, and who they do it with, can you be in a position to really help them and show them what will make sense to them. Notice that the emphasis here is on the prospect: what makes sense to THEM. It’s not about what makes sense to you, or what you would like to sell them. Notice also that we’re not talking about asking prospects about their “needs,” “problems,” or “pain.”
As D.E.I. Management Group President and author, Steve Schiffman says in his book “The 250 Sales Questions to Close the Deal:”
What if I ask the person to describe pressing business problems that he or she will face in the future? What if I build my proposal around those business issues? I might get a decent picture of what is going on in that person’s world, but I will not get the whole picture. Even if you discover everything about the person’s pains, needs, and problems, you will have only learned about certain parts of their situation – the parts that are currently causing pain and problems. You won’t be getting the whole picture. What about the rest of your contact’s situation – the things that don’t fit in the categories of pain, needs, or problems? What’s going on there? If I only ask about “needs,” I don’t know – and if you’ve only been asking the types of questions mentioned above, neither do you.
Let’s explore this a bit more deeply. People will only make a decision to do something if it makes sense to them. I think that’s something we can all agree on. So how do we know what will make sense to someone we meet for the first time, or whom we don’t know all that well? That comes through asking questions and in taking a genuine interest in the people we meet with.
Many of us in sales were taught, at one time or another, that we need to be good listeners, and that we need to show we care by asking questions. Yet how many of us really do a good job at that? We are excited about our products and services – we want to jump right in and show our prospect that we have the fix for whatever ails them. We need to learn to fight that urge to “throw-up” on the prospect with our solution to their problem – for if we do this too soon in the process we’re really just guessing at what makes the most sense to them.
An understanding of basic human motivation will help you ask better questions to arrive at the ultimate plan that will make sense to your prospect. As human beings, we are all drive by two primary motivating factors; the desire to avoid pain, or the desire to gain something. Or, to put it another way – we either want to fix something that isn’t working, or we want to create a better future.
Consultant and author Mahan Khalsa in his book “Let’s Get Real or Let’s Not Play” says it well:
People who are trying to “move away from pain” will interpret issues as pain and may give us a list a problems, frustrations, and dissatisfaction. They may even use physical or emotional pain phrases like: “It’s killing us…,” “We’re bleeding…,” “It’s a pain in the neck…,” It’s a real headache…,” It’s a nightmare…,” “It’s like pulling teeth….”
People who are “moving toward gain” will interpret issues as results (i.e., objectives, goals, and outcomes). They may use phrases like” “What we’d like to see…,” “What we think is possible…,” “Our vision is…,” “What we’re excited about is…,” “Our end in mind is…,” “We’d like to create…,” etc. Their language will give us some hints about where they would like to start. We’ll just need to be aware of the language.
Our job in asking questions then, is to listen to what our prospect says and determine which mode they are operating in – listen to their language, and then ask more questions to find out more about their unique situation. In doing this, you will want to ask questions that relate to the past, the present, and the future. Asking about the past will help you determine what problems they may be dealing with that they want to fix. Asking about the present will focus in their present situation and the current “status quo”. Future based questions will give you a sense of what goals and outcomes they hope to accomplish. All of these areas are important to gain a full sense of what will makes sense to the person and of what will lead them to buy.
Every conversation is unique. You need to focus on what your contact is telling you and then follow-up with a logical question to dig deeper. Each question you ask should follow from the question and answer before it. For example, suppose you are speaking with someone and she tells you that her company plans to open 5 new locations in the next year. What will your next question be? Here are some possibilities:
• That’s great. I’m just curious, why five?
• That’s great. I’m just curious, where will they be? How did you decide on those locations?
• That’s great. What are your first year projections for those locations?
• That’s great. What kinds of challenges do you typically face when you open new locations?
You could probably come up with several other questions you could use here, but the point is that the question is squarely focused on them – and may not even have anything directly to do with your offering. Remember, your goal is to understand as much as you can about them. Through question like this you are developing a real conversation. A conversation in which your contact’s comfort and trust level will increase, and one in which you will gain real insight into what they “do” – what they hope to accomplish as well as the problems they need to solve.
Only once you’ve gained a better sense of their past, present, and future – along with problems (pain) and goals (gain) are you in a position to make a real recommendation or proposal.
Moving quickly through this step can jeopardize your opportunities to build a real relationship and to add real value to the selling situation. Take the time to truly understand what your prospect does, and you will see your sales increase!
India is amongst the top twelve countries in the world in terms of wildlife and forests depicting ‘Mega Diversity ’.
Remote mountains icy plateaus, moist evergreen foothills, rainforests and dry scrub, deserts, saline flatlands, mangrove swamps, lush mountain forests, grassy meadows, shaded pools of water; tall feathery bamboo all collectively supports an amazing variety of wildlife.
Since centuries ago animals have been worshipped in India for instance elephants are seen as Lord Ganesha and monkeys as Hanumana.
A very large number national parks and sanctuaries have now been established in India to provide natural habitat to animals. “TIGER” is National Animal & “PEACOCK” is National Bird Of India. This is only place in the world where one can see the majestic beauty of Tiger in a single visit of Bandhavgarh, Kanha or Ranthambore National Park. Tiger is now become a Prime animal of India.
Corbett national park -India’s oldest national park and Periyar Reserve hosts the home of the Asian Elephants. The Kaziranga in Assam is the homeland of one horned Rhino. Gir forest of Gujrat is now the only place in entire Asia for Asiatic Lion. The world’s heritage Keoladeo Ghana National Park, a smattering of wetland attracts some of the greatest congregations of migratory waterfowl.
Its flora comprises 15000 flowering plants that are 6% of the world’s total. India’s faunal diversity is also high, with its 1178 bird species representing 14% of the world’s total. Similarly there are Over 500 species of mammals, 30,000 insects and over 400 varieties of reptiles. In short this sub-continent is a paradise for those who love to observe the grace and beauty of the flora and fauna and for those who want to capture it on film
With an amazing variety of flora and fauna it is unfortunate to know that around 250 animals are endangered and in need of immediate protection. A few of them like Cheetah have already been extinct and many more are there in the queue surviving woefully on its last legs for instance Tiger, Golden Langur a few varieties of deers and monkeys and certainly some of the birds.
There had been several efforts made by the Indian Government to protect and perverse this rich wildlife and splendid nature. One of the success stories is that of the “Project Tiger” the most spectacular one and the one, which has saved many forests under its wide umbrella. Project Tiger succeeded mainly through the strong, evocative symbol of the tiger itself, in rallying public opinion not in India but worldwide.
The major cause of vanishing animals in India is poaching as well as shrinking forest cover. The cause is deforestation, because of population as well as industrialization growth. Inspite of, many efforts made to stop poaching there had been no radical reforms taking place, mainly because the laws are not effectively enforced.
In 1972 India declared a number of animals and birds as completely protected and started “project tiger", declaring 11 sanctuaries, reserved forests and national parks for tigers exclusively in the Indian subcontinent. Measures to preserve wildlife taken since independence have been fruitful to some extent. Now we have over 200 sanctuaries, national parks and reserve forests spread all over the country. Some of these are as big as 780 sq. km and the smaller ones around 26 sq.km in area. The majority of these are well connected by road and rail and some even by air. Furnished rooms, dormitories, rest house of the Forest Department and private hotels with all amenities are available. In most of the sanctuaries and national parks, roads are good. In some places there are watchtowers near water holes. Common animals found in abundance.
India has a great wildlife but it is not properly exposed. The major reason is that photography in India is not as easy as in the vast open grasslands of Africa. Lighting’s condition is generally poor. Most of the animals are very shy & alert. The forests are very dense with thick undergrowth thereby making the forests a bit inaccessible. But it is very true that India has a very large scope for wildlife photography if it is explored properly.
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Expand Your Business using Venture Capital
By Abe Cherian
Copyright ? 2005
Venture capital is a possible source of funding for new,
relatively unproven enterprises that appear to have
promising futures. However, such money is often hard to
Be realistic in your quest for venture capital. Venture
capital firms expect a business to be able to return their
investment not only with interest, but with a large profit.
Many venture capital firms are affiliated with banks,
insurance companies, other financial institutions and large
corporations. Some are owned by individuals or private
groups of investors and a few are publicly held.
Once you accept venture capital, you have relinquished some
of your autonomy and accepted the understanding that the
venture capital firm will take a large share of the profits
As an entrepreneur, you should understand the nature of a
vendor firm, before pursuing this as a financing source.
This type of investor expects a projected return on
Investment that is directly related to risk.
The greater the risk, the greater the return expected.
Typically however, an investment firm will not be
interested in getting involved with a new firm until the
business has established itself in some way, so the risk
factor can be determined.
The venture capital firm and its interest usually depends
upon the stage of the new firm's development. Once the new
firm has established itself and has a working
organizational structure, a viable business plan and start
up arrangement a venture capital firm may be interested.
However, some firms prefer a later stage of new business
development, perhaps when the new company is in its second
or third round growth state and needs more capital either
to carry out expansion plans or to tide it over until a
merger or public offering carries it to the next stage of
A company's business plan serves as the primary analytical
tool for the venture capitalist. In analyzing the plan, a
venture capital firm would most likely focus on three
The product or service- Investors seek product or service
innovations that give the company a strong competitive
advantage. A new idea, backed by market surveys measuring
the appeal of the product or service and its potential
market may be tempting to such investors.
Management capability- No matter how good your product or
how innovative your service, the quality and experience of
the management is a key factor in the success of your
business. The astute investor is well aware of this and
looks for solid evidence of such skill.
The industry's growth- Investors also want to be sure that
your products or services is in a growth field. A
significant or revolutionary product improvement, by
itself, may not have appeal in a declining product or
Most venture capitalists purchase common or convertible
stock rather than burden the fledgling enterprise with
interest payments on debt or debentures. They may possibly
want more than 50 percent ownership.
Additionally, while the venture capitalists may insist on
sitting on the Board of Directors or offering management
and technical advice, they are rarely interested in the day
to day management of the enterprise, unless its survival
and their investment is at stake.
Keep in mind that the minimum investment is generally from
$25,000-$1,000,000, but investment ceilings are almost
If you’ve ever been interested in selling products online, this is certainly a great time to go into business. With more and more online users everyday, and people becoming more comfortable spending and making purchases over the internet, there is a lot of opportunity for budding entrepreneurs to tap into this market.
Once you’ve selected your market and the types of products you wish to sell, you’ll need to choose an ecommerce software program that suits your needs though. Here are a few tips to help the process along.
What type of product are you selling? If you are going to taking orders for physical products that you package and ship to your customers, the ecommerce software you need will be very different than if you are selling digital products that are delivered directly over the internet. Make certain the software allows you to offer pictures, descriptions, and choices of sizes, colors, etc… if that is what you need.
Compatibility – Be certain your server or webhost’s server is compatible with the ecommerce program you choose. Most online store’s will want to have a secure connection, so make sure your webhost provides this option too.
Payment Processor – Make certain the ecommerce software you choose can integrate with your current payment processor or the one you are planning to use. Most of the better programs allow integration with all of the popular merchant account gateways so you an quickly and easily accept and process payments via credit cards.
Support – Although there are several open source ecommerce programs that work very well for small to medium size online shops, keep in mind that paid versions will usually offer full technical support. This is an important consideration if you are serious about starting and growing your online business.
Search Engine Friendly – Many newer ecommerce software programs are search engine friendly. That means they create addresses and ecommerce websites that search engines like google and yahoo can easily ‘read’ to see what’s in your store. This will increase your chances of your store getting listed in the search engines, possibly providing you with free traffic and more potential customers.
A time share is basically jointly owned property. Most people purchase a time share in the form of a vacation property. While most families or individuals cannot afford two homes or to travel to a second home a number of times a year, they have the option of investing in a time share. A time share allows an individual or family to own a portion of a vacation property and time to spend there. Sometimes a time share can be purchased so that one week each year, one week every other year, several weeks a year and in many other time allotments so that the time share meets the needs of each purchaser.
Time share sales are very commonly done by real estate agents that can provide more information about time share sales. There are people who specialize exclusively in time share sales and often have the largest assortment of time share sales to present to any one who is interested in a time share. The idea of time share sales originated in Europe by a ski resort real estate developer who decided to encourage his guests to “stop renting a room” and consider buying the hotel. His time share sales were successful as his former guest became ‘owners’ of the hotel bit by bit. Those involved in time share sales deal mostly with rooms that are similar to apartment or studio units. There are some time shares that offer multiple bedroom homes, but they aren’t as common in time share sales as smaller accommodations.
Time shares can be confusing without someone who specializes in time share sales to guide a buyer through the process. Time share owners are permitted to stay at their vacation resort during a set period of time that can depend on the kind of time share ownership they purchased. Many people who have time shares often allow family or friends to use their time share when they can’t or rent their time to another party. Sometimes one time share owner will change weeks or time allotments with another time share owner to accommodate changing schedules or needs. Another option would be to swap time share locations during a specific period of time with another time share owner to enjoy a different vacation destination. Exchanging time shares can be done privately or through a time share sales person.
While most people involved in time share sales and ownership love their decision to be involved in time shares, there are a number of critics who liken time share sales to travel cons. Doubters believe that time share sales should not require up front payments and those who invest in time shares will never recover the money that they invested. Those who do enjoy time shares believe that they are getting the best value for their money and are guaranteed the kind of vacation they want every time they stay at their time share.
Time share sales have been made to an estimated seven million individuals and families all over the world. Time shares include several thousand resorts that add up to 11 million time share ‘allotments’ that have been purchase. Time share sales are not limited to vacation properties anymore and have extended to luxury items like airplanes and fancy cars.
My youngest son wants to borrow $5,000 to start his own business. My wife is afraid to tell him no. She thinks we should just give him the money and not expect anything in return. I disagree. He doesn't have a very good track record with money, so I'm a little worried that my investment will be lost. Should I loan him the money and hope for the best or just tell him no and hope he doesn't get too upset?
A: The first thing you need to do, Jeff, is determine if this money would be offered to your son in the form of a gift, loan or investment. The very wording of your question tells me that you have not yet made that all-important distinction.
It sounds like your wife wants to make a gift of the money, expecting nothing in return but the undying love of her last born son.
You, on the other hand, don't know if you should offer the money as a loan (should I loan him the money) or as an investment (worried that my investment will be lost).
Until you can make that distinction, your money should remain in the bank.
I have a very simple rule when it comes to loaning money to relatives: NEVER, EVER loan money to anyone you might have to sit next to at Thanksgiving dinner.
"Son, pass me that dressing and tell everybody the story of how you blew your old dad's retirement money..."
A loan from a relative is no different than a loan from a bank. You, Mr. Banker, are giving your son, Mr. Borrower, the use of your money for a specific period of time and you fully expect the loan to be paid back under specific terms, even if his business goes south. Sure, you will probably be a little more forgiving than a bank when the loan goes unpaid, but the damage to your personal relationship could be extreme and hard to repair.
In the most basic of terms if you loan your son the money you become the creditor and he becomes the debtor. Have you ever heard of a creditor and debtor having a very good relationship? Has Visa ever called you up just to ask how you're doing? Has your mortgage company ever named a kid after you? Probably not.
The same rule applies with investing in a relative's business. I have raised money for several business ventures and not once did I ever think about asking my relatives to chip in. The last thing I'd ever want to do is lose my mother's yard sale money. I'd never hear the end of it!
An investment is made with the understanding that your money is totally at risk with no guarantee of return. Even under the best of conditions an investment in any business is a gamble. You are betting your money that the business will be successful and that you will get a payback at some point in the future.
Hug your money real tight before making the investment, because if the business doesn't make it, you will never see your money again.
You and your wife also seem very worried about making your son mad, which raises another huge red flag for me. If your son isn't mature enough to take the word "no" without getting upset, he's certainly not mature enough to start and run a business. Unless that business is a bicycle paper route, and even then I wouldn't put my money on his chances of success.
The bottom line is this: if you can afford to give your son the money and can do so without attaching strings to it, then by all means give him the money and wish him well. Encourage his entrepreneurial spirit and support him as a parent should.
Do not, however, expect anything in return and never bring up the money again, especially if he's the one carving the turkey on Thanksgiving Day.
Have you ever wondered how some people can turn out product after product with such easy? Have you thought these people were born with product creation ideas gene that you lack?
Thank your lucky stars that you found this article. In this article, I uncover some of the product creation ideas, secrets, tips, and tricks the Master product creators use. The article will help you create your own products.
After you master these ideas, secrets, tips, and tricks, you can begin to create your own products on demand. With A little practice, you can join the ranks of the Master product creators on the Internet.
In order no make this article too long, I have broken the article into 2 parts. You can get part 1 on my website: (See my resource box)
To start you on the road of product creation, below are the things you need to do.
6. Reincarnate an older product. Maybe you have a book that's out of print and is no longer being sold. You could change the title, design a new front cover, and bring some of the old content up to date.
The so called internet gurus have made fortunes doing this. Some of them resurfaced old direct marketing systems and brought them online. And they continue to do it today with great success.
7. Ask your current customers. You could contact some of your existing customers by phone or e-mail and ask them what kind of new products they would like to see on the market.
This is chance to connect with your customers. They will appreciate the fact that you sought their view.
8. Combine two or more products together to create a new one. For example, you could package 2 e-books together to make a package that compliment each other.
You can also do this with software. One of the best selling software package on the internet was done using this method.
9. Survey the people who visit your web site. You could post a survey or questionnaire on your web site. Ask visitors what kind of products they would like to see on the market.
This is another great way to connect with your customers. It’s always nice to offer them a freebie in return for their taking the survey.
10. You could create a new market for your existing product. For example, if you're selling plastic bottles to a pop company, you could turn around and sell those bottles to a fruit drink company.
The concept here is not just restricted to online or digital products. Think of all kinds of ways to get an idea and make money with it.
I hope the ideas, secrets, tips, and tricks presented here will get your creative juices going. The more you use them, the more they’ll become second nature to you.
I will be retiring this year at age 60 and intend to fulfill my lifelong dream of owning my own business. I'm too old to start from scratch, so I'm looking at several franchise opportunities, including fast food, auto parts, and an accounting service. What should I consider before choosing one? Anthony R.
A: Congratulations on the retirement, Anthony, and on the new business venture. As the old adage goes, when one door closes, a drive-through window often opens (or something like that).
Given the franchise types you are considering the first thing you should ask yourself is whether or not you want to spend your golden years cooking fries, selling mufflers, or doing taxes.
Franchising can be a great way to start a business career, but you should make sure you're not just trading one job for another. Unless you plan on being an absentee owner, which I highly discourage, you are gong to be working in the business just as an employee would, so be sure the business you choose doesn't turn your lifelong dream into a never-ending nightmare.
The primary advantage of buying into a franchise system is that it allows you to enter business quicker with a proven system, while minimizing risk and increases the odds for success.
The primary disadvantage is that you give up considerable freedom in how the business operates. In many ways franchisees are not really their own bosses because they are required to follow the rules set down by the franchisor.
Many franchise owners also quickly tire of asking: "Do you want fries with that?" and become absentee owners, which usually leads to the business being sold or shut down.
No matter what franchise you're considering, you should ask yourself the following questions before making a decision:
* Do you have past experience that pertains to the type of franchise you're thinking about buying?
* Are you prepared to work long, hard hours?
* Are you an effective manager?
* Are you willing to share your revenue with the franchisor?
* Are you willing to follow the franchisor's rules and regulations?
* And the biggie: do you have access to the necessary capital to invest in the franchise?
The big franchises like McDonald's and Midas Muffler can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars to buy into, but unless you are a total business savant, the franchise is virtually guaranteed to succeed.
It's true that even a McDonald's closes on occasion. Roy Croc spins in its grave when it happens, but happen it does, so keep that in mind. There are thousands of lower cost franchises that you can buy into, but the lower the investment typically means the risk of success is higher.
As a rule, franchise operations are generally more successful than independent startups because they have a proven concept, a ready market, an established customer base, and a business model that can be replicated over and over again. Less than 5f franchises fail during the first few years as compared to an 80ailure rate of independent ventures.
Many people have done very well as franchisees and often end up with multiple franchise operations. Adversely, many have not done so well because they bought into a franchise system that either was not all it was purported to be or they discovered that they did not fit into the franchisee's mold.
The key is to pick the franchise system that is right for you. Here are a few tips to help you do just that:
* Purchase a franchise that complements your skills, work experiences, and interests. Don't start a business in a field that is totally foreign to you.
* Plan on becoming an owner-operator versus an absentee owner. Absentee owners lose control and interest quickly and the franchise suffers because of it.
* Gather as much information as you can about the franchises you are interested in. You are considering investing a lot of money to buy into a system, so know who you are dealing with and what you are paying for.
* Experience the product or service firsthand, as a customer would. If you don't like the service you get at McDonald's, don't invest in a franchise thinking you can fix their problems and run things better. You can't and you won't.
* Interview other franchisees to gauge the franchisee satisfaction level.
* Ask how many franchises have closed and for what reason.
* Ask about initial and long-term training and support.
* Make sure the franchisor is profitable and financially sound.
* Finally, do your due diligence. Request a disclosure document that includes in-depth information about the franchisor and if a franchisor refuses to produce such a document, take that as a huge red flag and mark them off your list.
Many people fear that outsourced software development means having little or no control over the development process. They think there is no need to measure while the programmers are there in the same room. Or is there?
When I worked as a programmer in the 1980s, my boss used to joke that he was going to hire a guy with a kettle drum and put him in the corner of the room. Every time the kettle drum was hit, we had to have written a line of code!
Today, outsourcing promises huge cost savings and executives are less concerned with lines per minute than with dollars per hour. But in the end, it is important to know the money you spend is fueling real progress in the development of your software. How can this be done?
Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) provides an example of outsourcing that can be successfully measured. Business processes such as accounts receivable and outbound sales calls can be so well defined that you can accurately measure how efficiently and effectively they are implemented. New software tools not only help you detect problems and inefficiencies, but can predict and fix the problems before they even arise.
To measure new software development you track how many new features are added over time. Some metrics split the programming required into work units and then track how many units are completed over time. It is best to measure results daily and at least weekly.
Engineers are notoriously optimistic about their ability to create working software. So another metric measures how accurate their estimates are for the time required to finish the software development. Initially, their ability to estimate will likely be poor. You can set a goal for the engineers to improve this skill as your development continues so you improve the predictability of your process.
For maintenance programming you need to track the work units or bugs fixed over time. In addition, you should measure the amount of re-work required for bugs that fail the QA step after bug fix attempts.
Your outsourced team should commit to a schedule for completing the programming work. As part of this their commitment, they must also agree to the definition of work units and the productivity level they believe they can achieve. Their commitment makes them independent and liberated from requiring specific instructions for all their daily work activities.
You typically measure the throughput of your outsourced team as a whole. A team is typically a combination of junior and senior members. Junior engineers will need guidance and mentoring from the senior engineers. This is normal and should be expected and encouraged. But it should also be measured over time. A senior engineer can be expected to spend from 5% to 25% of his/her time with junior engineers depending on the complexity of the project and prior experience of the junior engineer.
Today most people use simple software tools like spreadsheets and Microsoft Project to track the metrics of their outsourcing. More sophisticated tools are also available but are expensive and best applied when you have a large portfolio of software development projects. New tools are being developed to automatically compute your metrics as your software is developed.
For example the amount of time source files are checked out of your source code control system can be used to help measure the productivity of your engineers. Other on-line techniques to track progress and measure results will be coming soon.
You can use metrics as the basis for a Service Level Agreement (SLA) you’re your outsourcing vendor. But remember: the purpose of an SLA is to help guide your software development to success and to detect and correct problems as they arise. It is not to support micro management, a blame game or to create an adversarial relationship with your outsourced team.
Will software development become as predictable as BPO and enable you to fix problems before they occur? I doubt we will ever have this much control over the creative software development process... but who knows? That guy with the kettle drum may not be far off!
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Test Your Direct Response Marketing Using two Steps
By Abe Cherian
Copyright ? 2005
Of all the mistakes a small business owner can make,
possibly none will cost more than failing to test one
aspect against another. In order words, testing one price
against another. One headline against another. One ad
There is an "A-B" test. That's the common terminology for
testing your offer, headlines, pricing, ads, or services.
We create two different ads, an A and a B, two different
headlines, and two different mailings to determine which
obtains the greater response or sales or referrals.
The key to an A-B test is to set it up so you can quantify
and measure it properly and track those results with the
goal to zero in on the one or two choices that are
Preferable over the others.
Then you roll out a new untested product or marketing
strategy in this manner, and by mailing to a small test
area, say 500-1,000, you can save yourself in the event of
a failure untold thousands of dollars.
Most of the time you can conduct multiple A-B tests
simultaneously on the same product, ad, headline, price,
etc. before selecting the final strategy. I recommend if
your product or service is conducive to this type of
approach, in other words, creating a modest direct mail
campaign for conducting the A-B test to do it.
Direct mail is the method of choice because it can be put
together relatively quickly and inexpensively.
The prospects to whom you direct your mailing to in a
one-step approach will either respond or not respond with a
purchase or inquiry. No intermediate steps, calls or
visits. That way it involves a fairly standard set of steps
or procedures to take.
Your two other major goals should be in using A-B tests to
verify what people will actually buy and determine whether
you are able to reach these individuals with the marketing
campaign that you intend to launch so that they will buy
You must be able to think of the purpose of an A -B test as
a way to uncover the best and most profitable mix of
products, services, price incentives and guarantees that
will encourage your prospects to buy.
A word of caution: many organizations try to determine this
information by sending out surveys. Sometimes this works
and sometimes it doesn't. There are statistics that show
that people rate the Bible as the highest read book and the
National Inquirer as the least read. When you look at
purchase statistics, they show that more people read the
Inquirer in one week than all other books or pamphlets.
You don't necessarily want to determine. who will buy
things just by a survey. You want them to vote with their
A business relationship is different from any other kind of relationship, being a personal or a social relationship. However, to understand what a business relationship means, it is necessary to identify what a relationship is.
A relationship is according to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary “a connection between things”. A different definition is that it “is a memory of past interactions”. Both definitions say something about a relationship even though that they do not say exactly the same. However, the definitions do not differ between business relationships and personal relationships, which is important because there is a different objective between the two kinds of relationships. Therefore, a business relationship can be defined as: “A bond based on a rational objective, which is to do business with each other”.However, as the interaction between the two actors increases, a certain relationship evolves and the knowledge about the other part is increased. Together they create a combined understanding and view of reality. The more common output of the relationship is a decrease in transaction costs, as transactions becomes routinely and the bond between the two companies is strengthening.
When talking about a business relationship, trust comes to mind, because relationships build on trust. However, can a relationship survive without trust? It is possible for a professional relationship to exist without trust, though in most cases trust is a part of the professional relationship. Various authors, such as Paul Greenberg in CRM at the speed of light, 2000, has argued that relationships build on memories of past interactions, because on the first encounter you do not know each other, however, on the second encounter you build the relationship on the previous encounter . He believes that it is the previous encounter that counts in the eyes of the customer. It is true that a need can create a genuine relationship, however, a long-term relationship needs trusts to be able to survive. Furthermore, the better one get to know the other, the better conditions the relationship has to succeed, if there is a honest approach to build the relationship. To some degree the two approaches towards creating a business relationship agree, however, if the objective is to create loyalty both the successful encounter and trust must be accomplished in order to create a successful long-term business relationship.